Longfellow uses Meenah'ga, which appears to be a partial form for the bush, but he uses the word to mean the berry. Nokomis warns her not to be seduced by the West Wind (Mudjekeewis) but she does not heed her mother, becomes pregnant and bears Hiawatha. A reprint was published as a Nonpareil book in 2005, "Native American Words in Longfellow's Hiawatha", "Sheet Music: The Death of Minnehaha (c.1855)", "Metropolitan Museum of Art Announces Augustus Saint-Gaudens Exhibition", "LSA Building Facade Bas Reliefs: Marshall Fredericks", "Eastman Johnson: Paintings and Drawings of the Lake Superior Ojibwe", "Fiercely the Red Sun Descending, Burned His Way Across the Heavens by Thomas Moran", "Hiawatha and Minnehaha on Their Honeymoon by Jerome-Thompson", "Hiawatha's Friends Frederic Remington (American, Canton, New York 1861–1909 Ridgefield, Connecticut)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Song_of_Hiawatha&oldid=991998986, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2012, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Part of the poem captures the love between Hiawatha and Minnehaha… He had available to him not only [previous examples of] poems on the Indian ... but also the general feeling that the Indian belonged nowhere in American life but in dim prehistory. The New York Times review of The Song of Hiawatha was scathing. "[24] Trochaic is not a correct descriptor for Ojibwe oratory, song, or storytelling, but Schoolcraft was writing long before the study of Native American linguistics had come of age. And the lovely Laughing Water Her father was Haitian and her mother was Native American and African American. [51] Mike Oldfield used the sections "Hiawatha's Departure" and "The Son of the Evening Star" in the second part of his Incantations album (1978), rearranging some words to conform more to his music. It is a bitter winter. [17], The Song of Hiawatha was written in trochaic tetrameter, the same meter as Kalevala, the Finnish epic compiled by Elias Lönnrot from fragments of folk poetry. Hiawatha!" The Song of Hiawatha is a long narrative poem that, in its twenty-two sections, recounts the adventures of an American Indian hero. 2), based on canto 20, and Hiawatha's Departure (Op. "Hiawatha: Longfellow, Robert Stoepel, and an Early Musical Setting of Hiawatha (1859)". "[3] Longfellow was following Schoolcraft, but he was mistaken in thinking that the names were synonymous. Wherever he got the idea from, it certainly works very effectively in this context. American landscape painters referred to the poem to add an epic dimension to their patriotic celebration of the wonders of the national landscape. [29] Lydia Sigourney was inspired by the book to write a similar epic poem on Pocahontas, though she never completed it. Other popular songs have included "Hiawatha’s Melody of Love", by George W. Meyer, with words by Alfred Bryan and Artie Mehlinger (1908),[49] and Al Bowlly's "Hiawatha’s Lullaby" (1933). Pisani, Michael V. (1998). [58] The English artist Frances Anne Hopkins travelled in the hunting country of Canada and used her sketches from the trip when she returned to her studio in England in 1870. [10] Resemblances between the original stories, as "reshaped by Schoolcraft," and the episodes in the poem are but superficial, and Longfellow omits important details essential to Ojibwe narrative construction, characterization, and theme. Later on the poem tells of Hiawatha's tragic love for Minnehaha. [19] Longfellow also insisted in his letter to Sumner that, "I know the Kalevala very well, and that some of its legends resemble the Indian stories preserved by Schoolcraft is very true. Over snow-fields waste and pathless, Under snow-encumbered branches, Homeward hurried Hiawatha, Empty-handed, heavy-hearted, [38] In 1897 Frederick Russell Burton (1861 — 1909) completed his dramatic cantata Hiawatha. By the shore of Gitche Gumee, By the shining Big-Sea-Water, At the doorway of his wigwam, In the pleasant Summer morning, Hiawatha stood and waited. In an article published in the New York Herald on December 15, 1893, he said that the second movement of his work was a "sketch or study for a later work, either a cantata or opera ... which will be based upon Longfellow's Hiawatha" (with which he was familiar in Czech translation), and that the third movement scherzo was "suggested by the scene at the feast in Hiawatha where the Indians dance". Fjelde chose to create Hiawatha and Minnehaha, a plaster sculpture illustrating a particular section of Longfellow’s poem, The Song of Hiawatha. But, he concludes, Hiawatha "will never add to Mr. LONGFELLOW's reputation as a poet. Hiawatha is not introduced until Chapter III. [Schoolcraft's book] has not in it a single fact or fiction relating either to Hiawatha himself or to the Iroquois deity Aronhiawagon. [4] The popularity of Longfellow's poem nevertheless led to the name "Hiawatha" becoming attached to a number of locales and enterprises in the Great Lakes region. Dark behind it rose the forest, rose the black and gloomy pine-trees, [75] The 1941 Warner Bros. cartoon Hiawatha's Rabbit Hunt features Bugs Bunny and a pint-sized version of Hiawatha in quest of rabbit stew. If we have inadvertently included a copyrighted poem that the copyright holder does not wish to be displayed, we will take the poem down within 48 hours upon notification by the owner or the owner's legal representative (please use the contact form at http://www.poetrynook.com/contact or email "admin [at] poetrynook [dot] com"). [36] African-American melodies also appeared in the symphony, thanks to his student Harry Burleigh, who used to sing him songs from the plantations which Dvořák noted down. The poem closes with the approach of a canoe to Hiawatha's village. [30] English writer George Eliot called The Song of Hiawatha, along with Nathaniel Hawthorne's 1850 book The Scarlet Letter, the "two most indigenous and masterly productions in American literature".[31]. It was installed in Minnehaha Park, Minneapolis, in 1912 (illustrated at the head of this article). Song of Hiawatha HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW By the shores of Gitche Gumee, by the shining Big-Sea-Water, Stood the wigwam of Nokomis, daughter of the Moon, Nokomis. Longfellow's poem is based on oral traditions surrounding the figure of Manabozho, but it also contains his own innovations. Hiawatha has childhood adventures, falls in love with Minnehaha, slays the evil magician Pearl-Feather, invents written language, discovers corn, and other episodes. [59] The kinship of the latter is with other kitsch images, such as Bufford's cover for "The Death of Minnehaha" (see above) or those of the 1920s calendar painters James Arthur and Rudolph F. Ingerle (1879 – 1950). Clements, William M. (1990). We are just giving you a taste of the story here. Along the way, Hiawatha finds the time to invent reading and writing and to teach these things to his people. Having then distinctly stated that I challenge no attention in the following little poem to its merely verbal jingle, I must beg the candid reader to confine his criticism to its treatment of the subject." Intentionally epic in scope, The Song of Hiawatha was described by its author as "this Indian Edda". He was known among different tribes by the several names of Michabou, Chiabo, Manabozo, Tarenyawagon, and Hiawatha. The poem is based on Native American stories and characters. 9, From the New World (1893). [7] Others have identified words from native languages included in the poem. Other 19th-century sculptors inspired by the epic were Augustus Saint-Gaudens, whose marble statue of the seated Hiawatha (1874) is held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art;[55] and Jacob Fjelde, who created a bronze statue, Hiawatha carrying Minnehaha, for the Columbian Exposition in 1893. Carved in Rome, these are now held by the Newark Museum in New Jersey. First published in 1855, The Song of Hiawatha is inspired by First Nations traditions, as well as Longfellow's personal visits and conversations with Ojibwa Chief Kahge-ga-gah-bowh who stayed in the poet's home. The Song of Hiawatha is an 1855 epic poem in trochaic tetrameter by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow which features Native American characters. Hiawatha welcomes him joyously; and the "Black-Robe chief" brings word of Jesus Christ. [37], Among later orchestral treatments of the Hiawatha theme by American composers there was Louis Coerne's 4-part symphonic suite, each section of which was prefaced by a quotation from the poem. c1570. Williams 1956: 300, note 1, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFIrmscher2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSchramm1932 (, Letter from Freiligrath to Longfellow, in S. Longfellow 1886: 269. Events in the story are set in the Pictured Rocks area of Michigan on the south shore of Lake Superior. "[9] In addition to Longfellow’s own annotations, Stellanova Osborn (and previously F. Broilo in German) tracked down "chapter and verse" for every detail Longfellow took from Schoolcraft. Eventually, Hiawatha gets lonely and decides to ask a woman named Minnehaha to marry him. Waited till the system answered / Waited long and cursed its slowness. [19] Trochee is a rhythm natural to the Finnish language—inasmuch as all Finnish words are normally accented on the first syllable—to the same extent that iamb is natural to English. Each section consists of approximately 60 to over 115 lines. There were also additional settings of Longfellow's words. "[2] Later scholars continued to debate the extent to which The Song of Hiawatha borrowed its themes, episodes, and outline from the Kalevala. It was already popular when James O'Dea added lyrics in 1903, and the music was newly subtitled "His Song to Minnehaha". [34] The work was not performed at the time, and the mutilated score was not revised and recorded until 2009. The composer consulted with Longfellow, who approved the work before its premiere in 1859, but despite early success it was soon forgotten. Longfellow had learned some of the Finnish language while spending a summer in Sweden in 1835. He saw how the mass of Indian legends which Schoolcraft was collecting depicted noble savages out of time, and offered, if treated right, a kind of primitive example of that very progress which had done them in. Hiawatha's Departure. 30, No. "The Song of Hiawatha" (1855) is an epic poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow that features Native American characters. Composed in 1855, the epic poem recounts the legends and myths of the Indian Hiawatha and specifically the return to his village with his Dakota bride Minnehaha, as described in, “Hiawatha’s Wooing,” the tenth verse of the twenty-two part poem: “Thus it was they journeyed homeward; Thus it was that Hiawatha To the lodge of old Nokomis … This at least may be affirmed, that it imparts a movement to the narrative, which, at the same time that it obviates languor, favors that repetitious rhythm, or pseudo-parallelism, which so strongly marks their highly compound lexicography.[21]. She painted her Minnehaha Feeding Birds about 1880. "[citation needed], In 1856, Schoolcraft published The Myth of Hiawatha and Other Oral Legends Mythologic and Allegoric of the North American Indians, reprinting (with a few changes) stories previously published in his Algic Researches and other works. Longfellow used Henry Rowe Schoolcraft as a source of Native American legend. [41], The most celebrated setting of Longfellow's story was the cantata trilogy, The Song of Hiawatha (1898–1900), by the Sierra Leone-English composer Samuel Coleridge-Taylor. [64] One of the editions is owned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art. [53] In 1872 Lewis carved The Marriage of Hiawatha in marble, a work purchased in 2010 by the Kalamazoo Institute of Arts.[54]. A plaque at the site says: Hiawatha and Minnehaha by Jacob Fjelde Erected in 1911 The poem was published on November 10, 1855, by Ticknor and Fields and was an immediate success. Like Longfellow's poem, Foy’s mural presents Hiawatha as the “noble savage” while Minnehaha is the embodiment of the Indian “princess.” Set in an idyllic landscape filled with lush vegetation framed against a sheer cliff in the background, seven Native men stand near the river as Hiawatha and Minnehaha arrive in their birchbark canoe. Strong, it was ascribed on the title page to "Marc Antony Henderson" and to the publishers "Tickell and Grinne". The … Hiawatha! " [14], Apparently no connection, apart from name, exists between Longfellow's hero and the sixteenth-century Iroquois chief Hiawatha who co-founded the Iroquois League. [39] At the same time he wrote "Hiawatha's Death Song", subtitled 'Song of the Ojibways', which set native words followed by an English translation by another writer. Though the majority of the Native American words included in the text accurately reflect pronunciation and definitions, some words appear incomplete. It's safe to say that The Song of Hiawatha is a violent poem. [28], Despite the critics, the poem was immediately popular with readers and continued so for many decades. And the desolate Hiawatha, Far away amid the forest, Miles away among the mountains, Heard that sudden cry of anguish, Heard the voice of Minnehaha Calling to him in the darkness, " Hiawatha! The first part, "Hiawatha's Wedding Feast" (Op. In October of that year, the New York Times noted that "Longfellow's Song of Hiawatha is nearly printed, and will soon appear.". Thus in Hiawatha he was able, matching legend with a sentimental view of a past far enough away in time to be safe and near enough in space to be appealing, fully to image the Indian as noble savage. From “The Song of Hiawatha” The Death of Minnehaha : By Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Over snow-fields waste and pathless, Under snow-encumbered branches, Homeward hurried Hiawatha, Empty-handed, heavy-hearted, Longfellow drew some of his material from his friendship with Ojibwe Chief Kahge-ga-gah-bowh, who would visit at Longfellow's home. Parodies of the "Song of Hiawatha" emerged immediately on its publication. Hiawatha and Minnehaha is a sculpture by Jacob Fjelde that has stood in Minnehaha Park in Minneapolis since the early twentieth century. It seems like every few pages we hear about a skull being caved in or a corpse getting picked at by seagulls. The deity, he says, was variously known as Aronhiawagon, Tearonhiaonagon, Taonhiawagi, or Tahiawagi; the historical Iroquois leader, as Hiawatha, Tayonwatha or Thannawege. 196. It is not the less in accordance with these traits that nearly every initial syllable of the measure chosen is under accent. In this section we meet Hiawatha's grandmother, Nokomis, who introduces the young boy to legends and folk law. The epic relates the adventures of an Ojibwe warrior named Hiawatha and the tragedy of his love for Minnehaha. Wabun's brother, Kabibonokka, the North Wind, bringer of autumn and winter, attacks Shingebis, "the diver". ‎The Song of Hiawatha is an 1855 epic poem in trochaic tetrameter by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow that features Native American characters. In Chapter I, Hiawatha's arrival is prophesied by a "mighty" peace-bringing leader named Gitche Manito. … as his medium, he fashioned The Song of Hiawatha (1855). Song of Hiawatha Garden Excerpt from the poem, Song of Hiawatha, written in a low stone wall surrounding the center of the garden Scenic overlook of Minnehaha Falls from the area around the garden The epic relates the fictional adventures of an Ojibwe warrior named Hiawatha and the tragedy of his love for Minnehaha, a Dakota woman. Dvořák's student Rubin Goldmark followed with a Hiawatha Overture in 1896 and in 1901 there were performances of Hugo Kaun's symphonic poems "Minnehaha" and "Hiawatha". Longfellow's poem was taken as the first American epic to be composed of North American materials and free of European literary models. Longfellow chose to set The Song of Hiawatha at the Pictured Rocks, one of the locations along the south shore of Lake Superior favored by narrators of the Manabozho stories. 1),[42] based on cantos 11–12 of the poem, was particularly famous for well over 50 years, receiving thousands of performances in the UK, the USA, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa. Nokomis gives birth to Wenonah, who grows to be a beautiful young woman. "[26], In reaction to what he viewed as "spiteful and offensive" attacks on the poem, critic John Neal in the State of Maine on November 27 of that year praised "this strange, beautiful poem" as "a fountain overflowing night and day with natural rhythm." [8] The folklorist Stith Thompson, although crediting Schoolcraft's research with being a "landmark," was quite critical of him: "Unfortunately, the scientific value of his work is marred by the manner in which he has reshaped the stories to fit his own literary taste. The tone of the legend and ballad ... would color the noble savage so as to make him blend in with a dim and satisfying past about which readers could have dim and satisfying feelings. [5] Some important parts of the poem were more or less Longfellow's invention from fragments or his imagination. 1900. Earlier attempts to write a national epic, such as The Columbiad of Richard Snowden (1753–1825), ‘a poem on the American war’ published in 1795, or Joel Barlow's Vision of Columbus (1787) (rewritten and entitled The Columbiad in 1807), were considered derivative. Schramm, Wilbur (1932). The poem tells of the adventures of an Ojibwe warrior named Hiawatha and his love for a Dakota woman named Minnehaha. He was not the first American poet to use the trochaic (or tetrameter) in writing Indian romances. Hiawatha!" Now a popular fixture of the park, its placement there was originally controversial. British rock band The Sweet reference Hiawatha and Minnehaha in their 1972 song "Wig Wam Bam". 'Hiawatha's Childhood' is the third in a series of 22 sections (and an introduction) that compose the larger poem. He argued that the poem was evidence that "Longfellow's music is getting to be his own — and there are those about him who will not allow others to misunderstand or misrepresent its character. "Hiawatha and Its Predecessors", This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 23:13. 30, No. Acquisition and Development. Any fairly practised writer, with the slightest ear for rhythm, could compose, for hours together, in the easy running metre of The Song of Hiawatha. The reviewer writes that "Grotesque, absurd, and savage as the groundwork is, Mr. LONGFELLOW has woven over it a profuse wreath of his own poetic elegancies." The majority of the words were Ojibwa, with a few from the Dakota, Cree and Onondaga languages. The most famous was the 1937 Silly Symphony Little Hiawatha, whose hero is a small boy whose pants keep falling down. Hiawatha definition, the central figure of The Song of Hiawatha (1855), a poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: named after a legendary Indian chief, fl. The poem was also parodied in three cartoon shorts, all of which featured inept protagonists who are beset by comic calamities while hunting. He complains that Hiawatha's deeds of magical strength pale by comparison to the feats of Hercules and to "Finn Mac Cool, that big stupid Celtic mammoth." The name, often said to mean "laughing water", literally translates to … Then the grateful Hiawatha Called the Mama, the woodpecker, From his perch among the branches Of the melancholy pine-tree, And, in honor of his service, Stained with blood the tuft of feathers On the little head of Mama; Even to this day he wears it, Albert Bierstadt presented his sunset piece, The Departure of Hiawatha, to Longfellow in 1868 when the poet was in England to receive an honorary degree at the University of Cambridge. Critics have thought these two artists had a sentimental approach, as did Charles-Émile-Hippolyte Lecomte-Vernet (1821–1900) in his 1871 painting of Minnehaha, making her a native child of the wild. Hiawatha!" "[2], Longfellow had originally planned on following Schoolcraft in calling his hero Manabozho, the name in use at the time among the Ojibwe of the south shore of Lake Superior for a figure of their folklore who was a trickster and transformer. For the trilogy of cantatas by, sfn error: no target: CITEREFWilliams1956 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFThompson1922 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSinger1987 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFClements1990 (, "One can conclude," wrote Mentor L. Williams, "that Schoolcraft was an opportunist." Numerous artists also responded to the epic. The work following the original chapter by chapter and one passage later became famous: Over time, an elaborated version stand-alone version developed, titled "The Modern Hiawatha": At Wallack's Theatre in New York a parody titled Hiawatha; or, Ardent Spirits and "Laughing Water," by Charles Melton Walcot, premiered on 26 December 1856.[69]. [15], The U.S. Forest Service has said that both the historical and poetic figures are the sources of the name for the Hiawatha National Forest.[16]. And the ancient Arrow-maker Paused a moment ere he answered, Smoked a little while in silence, Looked at Hiawatha proudly, Fondly looked at Laughing Water, And made answer very gravely: "Yes, if Minnehaha wishes; Let your heart speak, Minnehaha!" Arthur Foote's "The Farewell of Hiawatha" (Op.11, 1886) was dedicated to the Apollo Club of Boston, the male voice group that gave its first performance. [65] Dora Wheeler's Minnehaha listening to the waterfall (1884) design for a needle-woven tapestry, made by the Associated Artists for the Cornelius Vanderbilt house, was also epic. [4] Thompson found close parallels in plot between the poem and its sources, with the major exception that Longfellow took legends told about multiple characters and substituted the character Hiawatha as the protagonist of them all. In 1857, Longfellow calculated that it had sold 50,000 copies.[6]. The poem, one of his most famous, relates the adventures of an Ojibwe warrior named Hiawatha and the tragedy of his love for Minnehaha. Name: The park is named for the zoo and gardens that once existed on the site, which were owned and operated by Robert “Fish” Jones.He named his attraction for Henry Wadsworth Longfellow whose poem The Song of Hiawatha made nearby Minnehaha Falls world famous. Both the poem and its singsong metre have… The Song of Hiawatha is an 1855 epic poem in trochaic tetrameter by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow which features Native American characters. For example, the Ojibway words for "blueberry" are miin (plural: miinan) for the berries and miinagaawanzh (plural: miinagaawanzhiig) for the bush upon which the berries grow. Chapter II tells a legend of how the warrior Mudjekeewis became Father of the Four Winds by slaying the Great Bear of the mountains, Mishe-Mokwa. 667 Congress Street stands opposite Longfellow Square, home of a public monument to the poet. [66] The monumental quality survives into the 20th century in Frances Foy's Hiawatha returning with Minnehaha (1937), a mural sponsored during the Depression for the Gibson City Post Office, Illinois.[67]. Johnny Cash used a modified version of "Hiawatha's Vision“ as the opening piece on Johnny Cash Sings the Ballads of the True West (1965). [43] The initial work was followed by two additional oratorios which were equally popular: The Death of Minnehaha (Op. Later treated as a rag, it later became a jazz standard.[46]. But he wrote in his journal entry for June 28, 1854: "Work at 'Manabozho;' or, as I think I shall call it, 'Hiawatha'—that being another name for the same personage. Events in the story are se… Hiawatha! [5], The poem was published on November 10, 1855, by Ticknor and Fields and was an immediate success. Hiawatha! " Nothing is more characteristic of their harangues and public speeches, than the vehement yet broken and continued strain of utterance, which would be subject to the charge of monotony, were it not varied by the extraordinary compass in the stress of voice, broken by the repetition of high and low accent, and often terminated with an exclamatory vigor, which is sometimes startling. Longfellow wrote to his friend Charles Sumner a few days later: "As to having 'taken many of the most striking incidents of the Finnish Epic and transferred them to the American Indians'—it is absurd". George A. The earliest pieces of sculpture were by Edmonia Lewis, who had most of her career in Rome. Minnehaha dies in a severe winter. "Schoolcraft as Textmaker". First published in 1855, The Song of Hiawatha is inspired by First Nations traditions, as well as Longfellow's personal visits and conversations with Ojibwa Chief Kahge-ga-gah-bowh who stayed in the poet's home. [33], The poem also influenced two composers of European origin who spent a few years in the USA but did not choose to settle there. By registering with PoetryNook.Com and adding a poem, you represent that you own the copyright to that poem and are granting PoetryNook.Com permission to publish the poem. The epic relates the fictional adventures of an Ojibwe warrior named Hiawatha and the tragedy of his love for Minnehaha, a Dakota woman. "[27], Thomas Conrad Porter, a professor at Franklin and Marshall College, believed that Longfellow had been inspired by more than the metrics of the Kalevala. Eastman Johnson's pastel of Minnehaha seated by a stream (1857) was drawn directly from an Ojibwe model. Widely read, the poem had a significant … Longfellow provided something entirely new, a vision of the continent's pre-European civilisation in a metre adapted from a Finnish, non-Indo-European source. Longfellow's poem is based on oral traditions surrounding the figure of Manabozho, but it also contains his own innovations. In his notes to the poem, Longfellow cites Schoolcraft as a source for. Minnehaha is a fictional Native American woman documented in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's 1855 epic poem The Song of Hiawatha.She is the lover of the titular protagonist Hiawatha and comes to a tragic end. [32] It was followed by Robert Stoepel's Hiawatha: An Indian Symphony, a work in 14 movements that combined narration, solo arias, descriptive choruses and programmatic orchestral interludes. Parallelism is an important part of Ojibwe language artistry. Longfellow wrote to his friend Ferdinand Freiligrath (who had introduced him to Finnische Runen in 1842)[22][23] about the latter's article, "The Measure of Hiawatha" in the prominent London magazine, Athenaeum (December 25, 1855): "Your article... needs only one paragraph more to make it complete, and that is the statement that parallelism belongs to Indian poetry as well to Finnish… And this is my justification for adapting it in Hiawatha. Soon after the poem's publication, composers competed to set it to music. The Death of Minnehaha All day long roved Hiawatha In that melancholy forest, Through the shadow of whose thickets, In the pleasant days of Summer, Of that ne’er forgotten Summer, He had brought his young wife homeward From the land of the Dacotahs; When the birds sang in the thickets, And the streamlets laughed and glistened, And the air was full of fragrance, And the lovely Laughing Water Said … But Longfellow’s poem is set around Lake Superior, where Hiawatha is presented as an Ojibwa warrior who falls in love with the Dakota maiden Minnehaha. Duke Ellington incorporated treatments of Hiawatha[47] and Minnehaha[48] in his jazz suite The Beautiful Indians (1946–7). Minnehaha is the only character in the poem invented by Longfellow, and she is another of his long-suffering and passive women. He also had frequent encounters with Black Hawk and other Sauk people on Boston Common, and he drew from Algic Researches (1839) and other writings by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, an ethnographer and United States Indian agent, and from Heckewelder's Narratives.
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