The surveys comprised semistructured interviews based on a questionnaire which were designed with help of the IRAD team. In each community, GPS coordinates were recorded using the GPS receiver (GPS GARMIN MAP 64). It is now widely recognized, however, that conservation legislation is of fundamental importance to successful mangrove management systems (Van Lavieren et al., 2012 cited in Z. N. Feka, 2015). Some only purchased it, and others, in addition to purchasing it, also collected their own wood. We can create ovens that consume less wood," he said. Those who said the forests were becoming depleted supported their opinion by saying that the distance between where the wood is cut and where it is sold is increasing all the time. Women who live in villages in the mangrove forests also use red mangrove for their own domestic needs. Fish smokers’ ages ranged from 20 to over 60. We also found that the smoking time is almost 90% less than that of a traditional oven. This discrepancy with our study may be due to the fact that our sample was governed by the relationship between government (IRAD, MINEPIA) and the fish smokers who participated in our study. Figure 8. (2014) suggest that this demand is because of taste of smoked fish. Figure 3. Angoni et al. Some pitmasters will even put the wood on top of their smoker to drive off any remaining water. (b) Suspended wooden banda. The initiative stops the deforestation of mangrove wood as the women now use non-polluting solar driers to dry and smoke the fish. The most used alternative source of fuel was waste collected from the beach (Figure 5(a)). This allowed us to directly observe the fish species, any alternative fuels used, the type of oven used, and the wood species used for smoking. Wood from mangrove forests is also used for housing material, scaffolding, fishing stakes and more. Can be crafted into birch planks or burned for charcoal. The Implications of Wood Exploitation for Fish Smoking on Mangrove Ecosystem Conservation in th... Scientific Journal, Tropical Conservation Science, Reaches its Second Year of Existence, Angoni, H., Tatchim, A. P., Nkonmeneck, B. Our study also found that 52.7% of fish smokers were foreigners, which is contrary to the finding of Fall, Tounkara, Diop, Thiaw, and Thonart (2014), who worked on a socioeconomic and technological study of the production of fermented and dried fish (Guedj) in Senegal, and who found that only 10% of fish smokers were foreigners. Fish smoking is one of the key activities impacting on the disappearance of characteristic mangrove species. Soils are essentially gray or black vases, with silty textures, sandy, or clayey. Toshiba For fish it is recommended to use mild woods like apple, cherry or alder to prevent overpowering the flavor of the meat. However, the cost of buying a cinderblock oven is almost double that of a traditional oven (165€ compared to 89€—see Ndiaye & Diei-Ouadi, 2009). Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This study received funding from Dr. Mireille Sylviane DONGMO NGUEPI, lecturer from the University of Buea Cameroon, to whom the author is very grateful. This large gap could be explained by the fact that there were not many cinderblock ovens in our study site which prevented us being able to make a thorough estimate of cinderblock oven performance. (a) Suspended iron banda. Through structured and semistructured questionnaires, 243 fish smokers were interviewed in 9 local markets. A., Nguekam, E. (, Chabi, N. W., Konfo, C. T., Emonde, P. D., Chichi, M. T. C., Sika, K. J. C., Alamou, Y., Baba-Moussa, L. S. (, Degnon, R. G., Agossou, V. E., Adjou, E. S., Dahouenon-Ahoussi, E., Soumanou, M. M., Sohounhloue, D. C. (, Din, N., Ngo-Massou, V. M., Essomè-Koum, G. L., Ndema-Nsombo, E., Kottè-Mapoko, E., Nyamsi-Moussian, L. (, Ekomy, A. S., Bruneau, D., Mbega, D. J., Aregba, W. (, Fall, N. G., Tounkara, L. T., Diop, M. B., Thiaw, O. T., Thonart, P. (, Feka, N. Z., Chuyong, G. B., Ajonina, G. N. (, Ngo-Massou, V. M., Essomè-Koum, G. L., Kottè-Mapoko, E., Din, N. (, Oulaï, S. F., Koffl, R. A., Koussemon, M., Dje, M., Kakou, C., Kamenan, A. Most fish smokers used only two species: 64.6% did not use a third choice species. Indeed, there was a significant difference (t = 11.559, df = 242, p = .00035) between wood quantities and fish quantities. This has been a common method for preserving meat and fish for millennia in many parts of the world (Kone, 2001). Interviews were conducted in the fish smoker’s kitchens. 1,315 mangrove wood products are offered for sale by suppliers on, of which charcoal accounts for 29%, decorations & ornaments accounts for 1%. Cassava peelings (Figure 5(b)) were the second most used. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. T tests were used in order to compare ovens yields and to compare the amount of wood consumed and the quantity of fish smoked. Several wood species are cut for activities such as cooking food, baking bread, house construction, or building canoes, but fish smoking remains the main drive behind tree felling. Sharing links are not available for this article. Thus, approximately 3 kg of wood is necessary to smoke 1.5 kg of fish, this is similar to Ngoma’s (2005) finding in his study on improving fish smoking in Brazzaville. Mangrove wood is harvested by local communities for many purposes, but most notably as fuel for fish smoking. This increase in distance also increases the price of the wood. Our first field trip was conducted with personnel from the IRAD and the Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries’ (MINEPIA) team, who introduced us to the fishing communities and explained the purpose and importance of our work. Whether in quantity and cost of wood, or in smoking time, a traditional oven uses twice as much as a cinderblock oven. Several oven types were used in the study sites, but 99.6% of fish smokers used a traditional oven (banda). More specifically, we. It seemed that local people were unaware of the need to maintain ecosystem Indeed, there is a significant difference (F = 17.348, df = 243, p = .00012) between wood consumption in the nine communities. endstream Potential Impact of Fish Smoking on Mangrove Resources in Southwest Cameroon,,, Ngo-Massou, Essomè-Koum, Kottè-Mapoko, & Din, 2014,,, For many people, it is their sole livelihood. The flora consists essentially of tree species with a dominance of Rhizophora racemosa. While sometimes used as bait, mullet make an excellent choice for smoking or frying. Read my article on soaking wood. On average and for fish smoking session, fish smokers use 50€ for wood. However, indigenous fishing communities on the coast harvest mangrove wood for household domestic use, in particular for cooking and smoking fish. Historically, indigenous people gathered the leaves for this salt, and the wood was an important fuel source for smoking fish. Indeed, this study found that red mangrove is the favored wood for fish smokers. About 400 women in Cameroon’s coastal zones are contributing to environmental conservation by smoking fish with fish scales and kitchen waste as alternatives to using wood from mangrove forests. A balance needs to be found between consumption and preservation: This is the challenge for all parties involved in the fight for sustainable mangrove management in Cameroon. Manuscript content on this site is licensed under Creative Commons Licenses. A large percentage (76%) of wood used by fish smokers is red mangrove wood. Resource renewal is also threatened, as long-term conservation plans are not in operation in most areas, and little or nothing is being done to address the overconsumption of this resource. More wood is used in Down Beach, and Eyengue, and particularly in Idenau, than in other communities. Before beginning fieldwork, interviews were held with staff at the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), who had a good knowledge of the study site, and were able to advise us on locations. Thus, smoking is highly dependent on mangrove forests (Ajonina, 2008; Ajonina, 2001). %���� Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. In this Florida Keys fishing video, join us for a day of flats fishing in the lower keys on our flats boat. This happens on two levels: one is that the long-term supply of firewood is compromised and the other is that mangroves are an important habitat for the breeding of halieutic resources, and its loss is resulting in decreasing fish stocks (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2007). Wood is generally the preferred fuel for rural people because it is easily available, dispersed throughout the rural habitat, and can usually be obtained without major costs. Studies in Benin, Togo, and Ivory coast (Abotchi, 2010; Chabi et al., 2014; Oulaï et al., 2007) have found, like us, that all fish smokers are women. Our study marks an exception to Le Bigot & Ribier’s (2004) findings that west African tradeswomen do not receive as much schooling as their male counterparts. indicating a probable direct correlation between mangrove wood harvested and its use in fish smoking. However, fish smokers have been slow to change to cinderblock ovens, which could be due to a variety of social, economic, and cultural factors. According to Degnon et al. The result is that mangrove forests continue to be depleted at an uncontrolled rate. In addition to the sale of smoked fish, 8.6% of fish smokers also sell fresh fish. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. Image Credit: DarylGlass/iStock/Getty Images The oily texture and strong flavor of mullet make it a good choice for smoking. Fish smokers were asked how far they had to travel for their wood supply and the impact that distance had on their lives. The main objective of this study is to contribute to the sustainable management of mangrove forests in Cameroon through assessing the impact of fish smoking activities on mangrove resources. A project aimed at introducing one type of cinderblock ovens (chokor ovens) in the region failed mainly because of insufficient training and monitoring by project managers. The smoking time is also shorter than with a traditional oven, and working conditions (smoke, heat, and fumes) are better. The one-way analysis of variance was performed in order to compare wood consumption between different communities, compare different oven yields, and determine if there was any correlation between the amount of wood used and the experience of fish smokers. However, fish smokers are not always able to use the oven of their preference. In their study of five communities in the same area, Mulo and Ngueguim (2014), found that 83% of fish smokers used traditional ovens and 11% used metal ovens. The amount of wood and fish that can be used at any one time depends on oven size. This study took place in nine communities, all located in the Fako department in the south west region of Cameroon. Made in South Africa Suppliers/mangrove Wood Smoking Bbq Directory - Offering Wholesale South African Suppliers/mangrove Wood Smoking Bbq from South Africa Suppliers/mangrove Wood Smoking Bbq Manufacturers, Suppliers and Distributors at Your trusted wood smoking friend Gerry is here to help you out with finding the right wood for the job! Always meant to give the mangrove a go but never got round to it - anyone tried it ? (c) Coconut shell. A study by Cameroon Ecology shows that 750 m 3 of mangrove wood is used every year for smoking fish at the local level. %PDF-1.4 However, and perhaps most significantly, it is also due to the fact that the fish smokers surveyed by Djessouho (2015) used very small circular ovens, unlike the fish smokers in our study, the majority of whom used big suspended ovens. (, Polidoro, B. The majority of fish smokers (68%) preferred traditional ovens to the new cinderblock oven because they have a large capacity and are known to be durable. Some could even be classified as industries since they consumed 400€ to 420€ in wood per month (this is during the peak smoking period of 1 or 2 months). Introducing cinderblock ovens could be key to reducing the consumption of wood; they require half the amount of wood used by a traditional oven. Despite their evident ecological value, and the fact that they constitute an important source of income for surrounding coastal communities, there is a lack of mangrove protection measures in many tropical regions (Spaninks & Beukering, 1997). Effective mangrove conservation measures thus need urgently to be employed to avoid both socioeconomic and ecological disasters. Wood chips are currently the most common way to introduce the smoke however pellets and bricks are gaining traction as they burn slower and their compact size allows one to pack the wood container more densely which reduces the rate of replacement. Smoker box (optional) Small aluminum pan. The site is bordered to the north by Korup National Park, to the east by the city of Kumba, to the south by the Mungo river, and to the west by the Akwafe river, which forms the border between Cameroon and Nigeria (the Bakassi Peninsula). Custom hand-crafted dog kennel crate furniture for you and a forever home for your best friend. This use of mangroves is often of great importance. Reasons for firewood preference according to respondents. This study found that there is a strong correlation between the amount of wood burnt and the type of oven used. They are closely followed by smokers from Cameroon and Nigeria. These differences are due to the fact that in Pouokam’s (2011) study site, the mangrove forest stocks are almost exhausted, and this is putting pressure on other species such as forest trees and fruit trees. Four solar dryers have been built, saving up to 40 tonnes of CO2 per year. This study found that 99.59% of respondents use traditional ovens. These were selected according to their location (proximity to the IRAD)—as we needed to visit them 4 times a week. Report Post Likes(0) Quote Reply Posted: 25 Jan 2010 at 12:19pm. In Eyengue, it was sold in lots (see Figure 7), which comprise 120 pieces (see Figure 7) and cost 46€. Mangroves are known to sequester much more carbon than continental forests (Cordonnier, 2011). This difference is likely due to different wood species being used, as well as to varying costs. Wet wood makes bad smoke. The wildlife is dominated by vertebrate such as fish, birds, and reptiles, but there are also invertebrates such as crabs and molluscs (Ngo-Massou, Essomè-Koum, Kottè-Mapoko, & Din, 2014). Figure 5. Can't comment on the bottlebrush but I've got a US book here that says the best 2 woods to use when smoking are hickory and mangrove (!) The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. Wood purchases occurred weekly, monthly, and sometimes even annually, as sometimes the peak smoking period is only 1 or 2 months. Our study found that with traditional ovens, smoking approximately 20 kg of fish cost 7€, about 3.7 times higher than the 2€ cited by Djessouho (2015) in his socioeconomic analysis of fish smoking in Benin. They were Eyengue, Idenau, Esobe, Njonji, Debundsha, Bakingili, Batoke, Down beach, and Tiko. Three statistical tests were performed using R software. All products such as Mangrove charcoal, Coconut shell charcoal or Sawdust briquette can be used for Barbeque, heating and stove fuel, incense and guacharo wood burning, hookah smoking … The conservation of mangrove ecosystems is thus becoming an increasingly urgent topic (Tiéga & Ouédraogo, 2012). Figure 7. For the same amount (160 kg) and species of fish, a cinderblock oven consumes 122 kg of wood at a cost of 4€, with a smoking time of 5 and a traditional oven consumes 365 kg of wood costing 9€ with a smoking time of around 21 hr. (2015) also found that second wood choice by fish smoker was Azobe (25%), which is also the second choice found in our study (although at just 13%). Table 3. Mango was the most used third choice species (used by 15% of all respondents), and fruit trees were occasionally used. Black mangrove flowers are a popular nectar source for honey bees, leading to the creation of "mangrove honey." On the other hand, a traditional oven has a shorter life span. Our overarching aim is to contribute to the sustainable management of mangroves through an assessment of the impact of fish smoking activities on them. They were also asked to quantify their oven capacity (the maximum number of kilograms of fish it could hold at one go) and the amount of wood needed to smoke this quantity. The increasing demand for mangrove wood and the steady encroachment and spread of the nypa palm, an invasive mangrove plant… The restocking frequency varied from one fish smoker to another and was also affected by the season and the availability of fish. Assuming that a person who has not had any schooling is illiterate, the illiteracy rate among respondents was 31.6%. Alejandro Estrada Several species of mangroves, particularly Red Mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa), are used for fish smoking. In our sample, all the fish smokers were women. Firewood origin according to respondents. Cinderblock ovens are preferable both ecologically and economically and could be one of multiple solutions for the sustainable management of mangrove wood resources. Pouokam (2011) found that only 75% of fish smokers have preference for wood. Fish smoking is mainly carried out by women in coastal fishing communities and is a job generator, providing 240 000 indirect jobs for women. A suspended wooden banda may last only 5 months, although, on average, traditional oven lasts about 6 years compared to 13 years for a cinderblock oven. This gap is due to the fact that Azobe is not as widespread in the south-west region of Cameroon as it is in the southern region and also that red mangrove wood is still available, unlike in Kribi. Wanda_Ra . Some were better than others and each, according to our respondents, had its advantages and disadvantages. In their study on fish smoking in the same region as ours, N. Z. Feka and Manzano (2008) found that 62% of wood used for fish smoking is mangrove wood. This result is also supported by Ndiaye and Diei-Ouadi (2009) who report a result of 2€ of fuel per 100 kg of fish for a cinderblock oven compared to 5€ for a traditional oven. A total of 243 fish smokers were surveyed. The questionnaire elicited detailed data about the wood fuel used, such as how, where, and how often wood is collected or purchased, and at what cost. They are also safer to use, in that they do not generate as much heat and smoke as traditional ovens, and they smoke fish more cleanly (so that the fish are less carcinogenic). During the peak smoking period, large-scale fish smokers spend an average of 200€ per month on purchasing wood. Related Articles: Fluorescence: A Secret Weapon in Wood Identification; Scans/Pictures: As you can see below, Mango gets considerably darker when a finish has been applied. The FAO studies in 2008 showed that cinderblock ovens reduced wood consumption by 50% over traditional ovens. Direct observations were made of the conditions to which fish smokers were exposed (smoke, heat, flames). Wood quality is important in fish smoking. Wood is transported either by tricycle motorcycles, or by rickshaw or, mainly in the case of fruit tree species, by a person carrying it balanced on their head. 2008-09-15T17:30:12-06:00 endobj NB: Because the observation numbers of each variable were not equal, we used the harmonic mean of the group sizes. The different uses of mangrove wood were similar in all sites, but the quantities of wood extracted from different sites varied, with sites of high fish landings registering the highest fuel-wood turnover. If nothing is done to conserve or sustainably manage the remaining stands, then the Rhizophora species will disappear, as is already the case in Kribi and in many other regions (Ngo-Massou et al., 2014; Pouokam, 2011). Suspended iron bandas were the most common, used by 75.3% of our respondents. What is the main type of wood used as fuel, what does it cost, and where does it come from? Figure 10 shows oven preferences. Aluminum foil. In Cameroon, mangrove forests cover approximately 250,000 hectares and are among the most extensive stands in Africa (Angoni et al., 2015). Table 2 shows the different alternative sources of energy used. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (. For this reason, it … Lumber, both new and used, is best to avoid when choosing wood to smoke. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. In fact, many local ordinances forbid harvesting it. Oven preference by zone according to respondents. The Pearson r linear correlation test was performed to determine the degree of correlation between the amount of wood used and the quantity of fish smoked. We also found that fish smoking processes are not random. For the same smoking time, the cinderblock oven which has a capacity of 160 kg of fish per smoking session can smoke approximately 2,750 kg of fish with 780 kg of wood. Most women surveyed were married (88%) and many (especially foreigners) had a husband who was a fisherman and who supplied them with fish. 1 0 obj Primary school was the highest education level for most respondents (42.4%), 26% had secondary level. Ekomy, Bruneau, Mbega, and Aregba (2013), in their study of new concepts in the artisanal drying and smoking of food in Gabon, found that traditional longitudinal ovens have a ratio of 4.17 with a smoking time of 72 hr. Quote Wanda_Ra. NB: It takes 15 pieces like the one in Figure 6 to form a line. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. As it cannot be prohibited, strategies need urgently to be introduced to regulate mangrove wood consumption. Figure 10. They sometimes spend up to 400€ per month on wood and are mainly Ghanaian (47%) and Nigerian (30%). I would like to thank the Ministry of Forests and Wildlife and the Ministry of Fisheries and Animal Industry, through their departmental delegation of Fako, for facilitating field trips in the study areas. application/pdf The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. The majority of fish smokers were from Cameroon (47.3%), followed by Ghana (23.45%), Nigeria (22.63%), and Benin (6.6%). They are formed of river alluvium which is relatively rich in organic matter (Tadjoung & Effala, 2008). Furthermore, the resulting product is better and less carcinogenic, and therefore could be more valuable. Alternative energy. Population growth has greatly increased the pressure on these resources in recent years. In their study, Mulo and Ngueguim (2014) found that for every 100 kg of fish smoked, the fuel cost was 2.5€ for a cinderblock oven and approximately 5€ for a traditional banda oven. Figure 2. Wood chips. Questions were designed to elicit gender, marital status, age, study level, number of family members, nationality, and main professional activity (fishing, fish smoker, or fish seller). However, once you learn about the different types of wood for smoking meat, you will find those great few choices that will suit your personal tastes in no time. Different Oven Type Performance. Respondents gave several reasons to explain their choices concerning firewood. Sustainable management of mangrove forests in West Africa: A new policy perspective? Creation of a high spatio‐temporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st century (CGMFC‐21), Biology and distribution of mangrove crabs in the Wouri River Estuary, Douala, Cameroon, Evaluation de la qualité microbiologique des poissons Etmalosz fimbriata et Sardinella aurita fumés traditionnellement [Assessment of the microbiological quality of Etmalosz fimbriata and Sardinella aurita fish traditionally smoked], The loss of species: Mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern. How to reduce wood consumption is now a central challenge for many governments, and one solution could be the use of more economical ovens. In Cameroon, mangrove forests — made up of salt-tolerant trees and shrubs found between small streams and the sea — are in danger of becoming extinct because of the tendency of women to harvest them for smoking fish. US $580.00-$620 .00 / Metric Ton ... on, of which charcoal accounts for 76%, decorations & ornaments accounts for 5%. Data were collected through the interviews which focused on respondents’ socioeconomic, demographic, and professional characteristics as well as their daily activities. Eight percent of fish smokers did not mention any second choice species because they used only one species for their activities. When they were used, it was usually only branches which were harvested. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? Some respondents had not come across cinderblock ovens. Fishing and hunting are the main human activities. treat fish like fish Post Options . Table 1 gives a summary of data obtained from each site. Maps were made using ArcView 3.2 software. TSI Evaristus, senior lecturer at the Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences and Dr. NGUEGUIM Jules, Head of station IRAD Limbe-Batoke, for their supervision of this work and their creative thinking and hard work during the establishment phase of the project. (d) Palm nuts waste. Mangrove Charcoal is a great source for BBQ or grilling. (2013), Djessouho (2015), and Chabi et al. At present, the implementation of law is an issue in Cameroon, and people are able to freely harvest as much wood as they want. (2007), found that only 11.2% of producers were women. I am also grateful to Pr. The main activity for men was fishing. All statistical tests were performed at the significance level of α = 5%. Most respondents said they had been smoking fish since they were young and that they had inherited work spaces, equipment, and necessary skills from their mothers. Those from Benin did less fish smoking and therefore consumed less wood than others. <>stream This study also showed that 47% of wood used by fish smokers comes from mangrove forests. Fuel wood for fish smoking is the main driver behind the loss of Cameroon's mangrove, with deforestation rates of 8.28% per year (Feka, 2005, Ajonina et al., 2008, Alongi, 2008, Feka and Manzano, 2008, Feka et al., 2009, Feka and Ajonina, 2011). When there was a smoking session, the weight of the fish and of the wood used for smoking was measured and recorded. In the Wouri estuary, for example, 80% of Nigerian fishermen abuse the mangrove woods to smoke their fish. The Moringa tree is a drought-resistant and fast-growing tree that rejuvenates soil. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. During this first trip, nine fishing communities were identified (Figure 1) and invited to take part in the study. They use the oldest trees because large logs keep the fire going without refueling. Fish smokers have well-defined requirements for their activities. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. However, Pouokam (2011), who worked on the firewood sector in the Kribi fisheries, found that smokers used Sambi (Uapaca guineensis). Thus, the loss of mangroves will affect the entire planet not only because it will lead to a loss of biodiversity but also because it will accelerate climate change (PFBC, 2006). It has shown that wood plays a major role in the energy supply of the rural population. Alternative fuels that could reduce wood consumption are rarely used as fuel; they are used to improve the physicochemical properties of fish for better sales. Remember that tasty smoke comes from wood.