About four hundred men — A band of outlaws, who, however, under David’s wise management, became a band of mighty heroes. 2 All those who were in distress or in debt or discontented gathered around him, and he became their commander. discontented = bitter of soul. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/1-samuel-22.html. Compare Judges 18:25, "angry": i.e. Heb., That had a creditor or an oppressor, extortioner, usurer, who cruelly handled him. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". Joseph Benson's Commentary. Isaiah 27:13. (1 Samuel 22:2). The last words of David - i. e., his last Psalm, his last "words of song" 2 Samuel 22:1. Finding the new version too difficult to understand? 2 Samuel 22:1 "And David spake unto the LORD the words of this song in the day [that] the LORD had delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul:" The linguistic features of the psalm attest to its antiquity. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/1-samuel-22.html. In many a true believer piety is like a drum, which nobody hears of unless it be beaten. embittered. gathered themselves unto him; to help him, or rather to be helped by him; hoping in time things would take a favourable turn with him, and he should be advanced to the throne, and so their circumstances would be mended thereby: and he became a captain over them; they enlisted themselves in his service, and he took the command of them; he might not know the circumstances of those in debt, nor of any of them thoroughly, nor their views in joining him; however he meant not to shelter them from paying their just debts if able, nor to encourage them in disloyalty to their king, only to make use of them for his own preservation for the present. And others, whose lands and goods their creditors might seize when their persons were with David. And though their persons were with David, yet their land and goods were liable to their creditors. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/1-samuel-22.html. In 1 Samuel 15:22 Samuel said that it is better to obey God than to *sacrifice to him. And everyone that was in distress, and everyone that was in debt, and everyone that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him. But if they were not virtuous when they resorted to David, that they became so by his discipline, influence, and example, is sufficiently evident from their subsequent behaviour. The poor, improvident, or perhaps unfortunate, debtor was protected by wise laws against the greedy avaricious spirit of his merciless creditor. no uncommon occurrence in the daily life of the people. Herein David became a type of Christ, the Captain of our salvation, who cried, "Come unto me, all ye that are weary," and who are sensible that ye have Suffered more under Satan’s tyranny, than these had under Saul’s: and yet in his time, as afterwards in Tiberius’s, there was crimen ex silentio, ex voce, (a) danger either to speak, or to hold one’s peace, to have done anything, or nothing. Bill T. Arnold — 1 & 2 Samuel (NIV Application Commentary, 2003). https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/1-samuel-22.html. gathered themselves unto him; to help him, or rather to be helped by him; hoping in time things would take a favourable turn with him, and he should be advanced to the throne, and so their circumstances would be mended thereby: and he became a captain over them; they enlisted themselves in his service, and he took the command of them; he might not know the circumstances of those in debt, nor of any of them thoroughly, nor their views in joining him; however he meant not to shelter them from paying their just debts if able, nor to encourage them in disloyalty to their king, only to make use of them for his own preservation for the present. Ver. "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". These beneficent regulations of the great lawgiver had, under the capricious, faulty rule of King Saul, of course fallen into abeyance, and a terrible amount of misery, no doubt, was the consequence. . 1999. every one that was in distress — (See on Judges 11:3). https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/1-samuel-22.html. 2-samuel 22:1 And David spake unto the LORD the words of this song in the day that the LORD had delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul: ; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. Some went to him in the first days of his exile, others after the massacre at the sanctuary at Nob, others later, and thus gradually 400 gathered round him. "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". And every one that was in debt — אשׁר לו נשׁא asher lo noshee, the man that had a creditor. How long David remained in the cave of Adullam before his flight to Moab we are nowhere told. And yet, it was during this period that some of his Mighty Men adhered to his cause. [John 9:35] And in the civil law we find provision made for such as were cast out and exposed to the wide world; some hospitals to entertain them, some liberties to comfort and compensate their troubles. New York. 1: cap. ; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. Thus all David's people were men of bitter spirit, extremely distressed and grieved for the loss of their wives and children, chap. Men. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". Every one that was discontented — Hebrew, מר נפשׁ mar nephesh, the man bitter of soul, aggrieved in his mind, made uneasy and discontented, “probably,” says Dr. Dodd, “with Saul’s tyrannical government, and his implacable persecution of David, who, by this time, must have been well known to have been the intended successor of Saul.” It does not appear, from this description, that these were men of abandoned characters and profligate principles, as some have thought, who joined themselves to David purposely to cheat their creditors, and for the sake of the plunder they were in hopes of getting under him. So, too, there is a “Divine discontent” which brings people to Christ. But if this were their design they were greatly disappointed, for David never made any improper use of them. But David did not take these men into his service, till by information from Jonathan, and by many other certain proofs, it evidently appeared that his life was in imminent danger. "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". About four hundred men were with him. BibliographyBarnes, Albert. Along with members of his family, David's supporters at this time were, in a word, every outlaw in the kingdom. 1 Samuel 22 New International Version (NIV) David at Adullam and Mizpah 22 David left Gath and escaped to the cave of Adullam. It is evident from the respect which he inculcated upon his followers for the rights of property and for the person of Saul, that he meditated neither treason against the king nor rebellion against his government. 1 Samuel 22:2. BibliographyExell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "1 Samuel 22:2". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". And every one that was in distress, &c.— A catalogue of the bravest is given in 2 Samuel 23:8-39; 1 Chronicles 11:10-47. 1859. one = man. Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:20-23 (Read 1 Samuel 22:20-23) David greatly lamented the calamity. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-samuel-22.html. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/1-samuel-22.html. Free Bible study questions for 1 Samuel 8 provides great insight into why God’s people end up living in a less than ideal situation. thou chiefest among ten thousand; now art thou to me the altogether lovely, and the Captain of my salvation. 3. Used by Permission. 1870. BibliographyJamieson, Robert, D.D. God gave them what When his brothers and his father’s household heard about it, they went down to him there. In this he was a type of Christ, who receives sinners distressed with a sense of sin, discontented in their present state, and in debt, and, unable to pay their debts; see ( Matthew 11:28 ) ( Luke 7:41 Luke 7:42 ) ( Luke 15:2 ) ; and there were with him about four hundred men; among whom some think were the three mighty men spoken of in ( 2 Samuel 23:13 2 Samuel 23:14 ) ( 1 Chronicles 11:15 1 Chronicles 11:16 ) . “But the men were very good unto us, and we were not hurt, neither missed we anything, as long as we were conversant with them.” Now surely if men’s lives were made good by coming to David, the effect which coming to Christ should have upon our characters is infinitely more beneficial. . in an afflicted and calamitous condition. a 2 He was joined by all those in difficulties or in debt, or embittered, * and became their leader. And every one that was in distress ... gathered themselves unto him - (see the note at Judges 11:3.) See de Jure B. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-samuel-22.html. Copyright StatementThese files are public domain. (2) Every one that was in distress.—Ewald writes on this statement:—“The situation of the country, which was becoming more and more melancholy under Saul, . The cave of Adullam was a refuge for debtors, and so is the Church of Christ. The last thing we note about the miserable men who came for refuge to David is that they were taught by him to live good lives. 2 Samuel 7:1-17 (2017) [NEW SERIES] English Standard Version 2 Samuel 7:1-17 ESV Easy-Print Commentary 2 Samuel 7:1-17 ESV Easy-Print Large Print Commentary English Standard Version and Student Study Handout for "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". Proud member In debt — Hebrew, had a creditor; and who, having no means of meeting their obligations, were likely to be sold to their creditors. 1 Samuel chapter 22 summary starts out with David leaving the presence of the king of Gath and dwells in a cave, from whence he sent word to his family where he was and they came to … The phrase here denotes those who were exasperated by Saul‘s tyranny. I. David sets up his standard in the cave of Adullam, entertains his relations (v. 1), enlists soldiers (v. 2), but removes his aged parents to a more quiet settlement (v. 3, v. 4), and has the prophet Gad for his counsellor (v. 5). https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/1-samuel-22.html. BibliographyPoole, Matthew, "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". (Calmet) --- The soldiers of Jephte were of the same description as these of David, Judges xi. 10 Best 1-2 Samuel Commentaries Please read: The “Top 10” list below is a starting point for learning about 1-2 Samuel commentaries. Copyright StatementThese files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed. BibliographyEllicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". How could David receive and countenance such persons to the wrong of their creditors? And Hannah prayed and said: “My heart rejoices in the LORD; My horn is exalted in the LORD. "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". Yes! 2 Samuel 22: 1 – 51 Save the humble – oppose the proud 22 Then David spoke to the LORD the words of this song, on the day when the LORD had delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from the hand of Saul. David did not send away these refugees, many of them distinguished and prominent Israelites, but organised them into a military force. Discontented - See the margin. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/1-samuel-22.html. The chronicles of the Middle Ages in all countries teem with similar stories about the chosen people. At the period of which the text speaks, David was leading the life of an outcast and an outlaw. In straitened circumstances, through the oppression of men, through poverty, and afflictive providences in their families: and everyone that was in debt; and not able to pay their debts, and whose creditors were pressing upon them: and everyone that was discontented; with Saul's government and conduct: or "bitter in soul"F24מר נפש "amarus animo", Pagninus, Montanus. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/1-samuel-22.html. All rights reserved. "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". Go to. . 1685. 2 All those who were in distress or in debt or … New International Version (NIV) BibliographyTrapp, John. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". In Proverbs, for instance, we have some conspicuous instances. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/1-samuel-22.html. 1. This state of things, with a few interruptions, really came to pass, and David won great repute and popularity among the protected districts during these years when he was a wanderer and an outlaw—a popularity which in after years stood him in good stead.”. These persons “in distress” were especially those who were persecuted by Saul and his men for their attachment to David. (See Excursus I. at the end of this Book.). Kingdom and Chaos David and His Misfits March 17, 2019 1 Samuel 22:1-2 NIV David left Gath and escaped to the cave of Adullam. “ The Evangelical Exegetical Commentary is a brand new, 44-volume commentary series which incorporates the latest critical biblical scholarship and is written from a distinctly evangelical perspective. But the original words by no means convey any such meaning as this. BibliographyHawker, Robert, D.D. And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became a captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". And every one that was in distress.] 1828. thy little army is composed of distressed souls; for none will make thee their Captain whose spiritual circumstances are not desperate. When his brothers and his father's household heard about it, they went down to him there. 2 a He said, b “The L ord is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer,
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