Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. During the last two decades (1987–2006), this transport has averaged 145 million metric tons per year. From St. Louis to the Ohio River confluence, the Middle Mississippi falls 220 feet (67 m) over 180 miles (290 km) for an average rate of 1.2 feet per mile (23 cm/km). Native Americans have lived along the Mississippi River and its tributaries for thousands of years. The full version, including a passage from the then unfinished Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and works from other authors, was published by James R. Osgood & Company in 1885. This topography contrasts strongly with the Lower Mississippi, which is a meandering river in a broad, flat area, only rarely flowing alongside a bluff (as at Vicksburg, Mississippi). With its tributaries, the Mississippi drains all or part of 31 U.S. states and two provinces in Canada. In addition to the Ohio River, the major tributaries of the Lower Mississippi River are the White River, flowing in at the White River National Wildlife Refuge in east central Arkansas; the Arkansas River, joining the Mississippi at Arkansas Post; the Big Black River in Mississippi; and the Yazoo River, meeting the Mississippi at Vicksburg, Mississippi. But it was the great flood of 1927 that ushered in a new era of levee building. The earliest bridge across the Mississippi River was built in 1855. The UMRCP model will be collaboratively developed by the Corps of Engineers and states and will become the ‘backbone’ for building a regional risk management strategy. The main factor is energy. [102], About 375 fish species are known from the Mississippi basin, far exceeding other North Hemisphere river basin exclusively within temperate/subtropical regions,[102] except the Yangtze. The water of River Mississippi flows within United States. Richard Jones moves the intake pipe for a water pump that is used to inflate the Tiger Dam water diversion system near the southwest pass of the Mississippi River Delta, May 20, 2010. The Mississippi River lies entirely within the United States. (Section 1103 of the Water Resources Development Act of 1986, P.L. The principal river of the North American continent ; counting as a part of it the longest branch of the drainage system, the Missouri, which far over tops the central stem, it is the longest river in the world. A few survive as icons—the Delta Queen and the River Queen for instance. The lifestyle gradually became more settled after around 1000 BC during what is now called the Woodland period, with increasing evidence of shelter construction, pottery, weaving and other practices. Instead, it stayed intact as it flowed through the Gulf of Mexico, into the Straits of Florida, and entered the Gulf Stream. The water elevation continues to drop steeply as it passes through the gorge carved by the waterfall. A major flood in 1881 caused it to overtake the lower 10 miles (16 km) of the Kaskaskia River, forming a new Mississippi channel and cutting off the town from the rest of the state. The combined Missouri-Mississippi system (from the Missouri's headwaters in the Rocky The Mississippi River Band of Chippewa Indians, known as the Gichi-ziibiwininiwag, are named after the stretch of the Mississippi River known as the Gichi-ziibi. [22] However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. Navigation and Ecosystem Sustainability Program (NESP) is a long-term program of ecosystem restoration and navigation improvements for the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS). In 1928, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was authorized by Congress to begin construction of the Mississippi … Abstract The Mississippi River fluvial–marine sediment-dispersal system (MRS) has become the focus of renewed research during the past decade, driven by the recognition that the channel, alluvial valley, delta, and offshore regions are critical components of North American economic and ecological networks. Measurements of the length of the Mississippi from Lake Itasca to the Gulf of Mexico vary somewhat, but the United States Geological Survey's number is 2,320 miles (3,730 km). Among the introductions are fish such as Asian carp, including the silver carp that have become infamous for outcompeting native fish and their potentially dangerous jumping behavior. This resulted in widespread shortages, high prices, and rationing of coal in January and February.[84]. The New Madrid Seismic Zone, along the Mississippi River near New Madrid, Missouri, between Memphis and St. Louis, is related to an aulacogen (failed rift) that formed at the same time as the Gulf of Mexico. The polluted water of the Mississippi River has caused the wildlife in the water to deteriorate. [29] Thus, by volume, the main branch of the Mississippi River system at Cairo can be considered to be the Ohio River (and the Allegheny River further upstream), rather than the Middle Mississippi. In their study, Report Upon the Physics and Hydraulics of the Mississippi River, Humphreys and Abbot emphasized that levees were the best method of flood damage control. - horse power MPH - Miles … Other major tributaries of the Upper Mississippi include the Crow River in Minnesota, the Chippewa River in Wisconsin, the Maquoketa River and the Wapsipinicon River in Iowa, and the Illinois River in Illinois. In 1682, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Henri de Tonti claimed the entire Mississippi River Valley for France, calling the river Colbert River after Jean-Baptiste Colbert and the region La Louisiane, for King Louis XIV. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural and urban civilisations. [102], Because of its size and high species diversity, the Mississippi basin is often divided into subregions. The Rock Island Rapids were between Rock Island and Moline, Illinois. Today, the remaining 2,300 acres (930 ha) island and community of 14 residents is known as an enclave of Illinois and is accessible only from the Missouri side.[43]. The Mississippi River has shaped the settlement patterns of the Greater New Orleans area since Bienville established the city in 1718. Mark Twain's book, Life on the Mississippi, covered the steamboat commerce which took place from 1830 to 1870 on the river before more modern ships replaced the steamer. It was thought that the river's velocity would scour off bottom sediments, deepening the river and decreasing the possibility of flooding. A navigable channel, formed by a series of man-made lakes between Minneapolis and St. Louis, Missouri, some 664 miles (1,069 km). Substantial parts of both Minnesota and Louisiana are on either side of the river, although the Mississippi defines part of the boundary of each of these states. Because the large scale of high-energy water flow threatened to damage the structure, an auxiliary flow control station was built adjacent to the standing control station. When Louis Jolliet explored the Mississippi Valley in the 17th century, natives guided him to a quicker way to return to French Canada via the Illinois River. NESP will improve system capacity and reduce commercial traffic delays through construction of seven new 1,200-foot locks, mooring cells, and switchboat implementation. At its confluence with the Ohio River, the Middle Mississippi is 315 feet (96 m) above sea level. In 1829, there were surveys of the two major obstacles on the upper Mississippi, the Des Moines Rapids and the Rock Island Rapids, where the river was shallow and the riverbed was rock. Frits van der Leeden, Fred L. Troise, David Keith Todd: "Pierre Le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville" (bio), webpage from. Now curbed largely by an elaborate system of embankments (levees), dams, and spillways, this lower section of the Mississippi was the golden, sometimes treacherous, highway for the renowned Mississippi steamboats, those “palaces on paddle wheels” that so fired the public imagination. c. 800 BC: The Mississippi diverted further east. The port of New Orleans boomed as it was the trans-shipment point to deep sea ocean vessels. In 1848, the Illinois and Michigan Canal was built to connect the Mississippi River to Lake Michigan via the Illinois River near Peru, Illinois. Failure of the Old River Control Structure, the Morganza Spillway, or nearby levees would likely re-route the main channel of the Mississippi through Louisiana's Atchafalaya Basin and down the Atchafalaya River to reach the Gulf of Mexico south of Morgan City in southern Louisiana. Mississippi Valley Division. In fact, there have been a number of expeditors who could not agree on the exact source of the rivers. [19] The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, and the early United States, and then as a vital transportation artery and communications link. The soil in areas such as Louisiana was thereafter found to be very rich.[63]. Only with the arrival of the railroads in the 1880s did steamboat traffic diminish. French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette began exploring the Mississippi in the 17th century. Lake Onalaska, created by Lock and Dam No. He referred to his voyage as a promenade that was once a journey on the Mississippi. Seventy-eight passengers and crew died; only eighteen survived the accident. Steamboat captains of the day, fearful of competition from the railroads, considered the new bridge a hazard to navigation. [citation needed] During the 2011 floods, the Corps of Engineers opened the Morganza Spillway to 1/4 of its capacity to allow 150,000 cubic feet per second (4,200 m3/s) of water to flood the Morganza and Atchafalaya floodways and continue directly to the Gulf of Mexico, bypassing Baton Rouge and New Orleans. 1, it has dropped more than half its original elevation and is 687 feet (209 m) above sea level. Above the dam, the river's elevation is 799 feet (244 m). The Mississippi River is entirely located in the United States although part of the drainage system of this river extends to Canada. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana.[17][18]. But it was the great flood of 1927 that ushered in a new era of levee building. The uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock and Dam in Minneapolis. Use the Port Index link on the left side menu to view an alphabetical list, by country, of the ports on the Mississippi River System. Because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees, locks and dams, often built in combination. [87], In 2002, Slovenian long-distance swimmer Martin Strel swam the entire length of the river, from Minnesota to Louisiana, over the course of 68 days. The Mississippi River is one of the world’s major river systems in size, habitat diversity and biological productivity. Mississippi River System: | | ||| | Map of the course, watershed, and major tributaries of... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. The Mississippi ranks as the fourth-longest river and fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe (Ojibwe or Algonquin) name for the river, Misi-ziibi (Great River). Xcel Energy’s 69-kV transmission line crossing a national wildlife refuge on the northern reaches of the Mississippi River — near Nelson, Wisconsin, U.S., 70 miles (113 km) southeast of Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S. — is just 2.7 miles (4.3 km) long. [78] In 1848, the continental divide separating the waters of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi Valley was breached by the Illinois and Michigan canal via the Chicago River. [72] The Pawnee name is Kickaátit. Updates? The Upper Mississippi River is joined by the Minnesota River at Fort Snelling in the Twin Cities; the St. Croix River near Prescott, Wisconsin; the Cannon River near Red Wing, Minnesota; the Zumbro River at Wabasha, Minnesota; the Black, La Crosse, and Root rivers in La Crosse, Wisconsin; the Wisconsin River at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin; the Rock River at the Quad Cities; the Iowa River near Wapello, Iowa; the Skunk River south of Burlington, Iowa; and the Des Moines River at Keokuk, Iowa. The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. It is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi"[20] or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The river flows 3,770 km into the Gulf of Mexico. From its confluence with the St. Croix River downstream to Dubuque, Iowa, the river is entrenched, with high bedrock bluffs lying on either side. On the basis of physical characteristics, the Mississippi River can be divided into four distinct reaches, or sections. Mississippi River water quality is of paramount importance for sustaining the many uses of the river including drinking water, recreational and commercial activities, and support for the river's ecosystems and the environmental goods and services they provide. Mississippi River System. Among the fish species in the basin are numerous endemics, as well as relicts such as paddlefish, sturgeon, gar and bowfin. This area is still quite active seismically. [55] There is a feasibility study to dredge this portion of the river to 50 feet (15 m) to allow New Panamax ship depths.[56].