The flowering period is May-July in Australia (Brooker and Kleinig, 1994), September-November in Florida (Geary et al., 1983), January-March in California (King and Krugman, 1980) or at any time of the year in tropical areas such as Hawaii and Puerto Rico (Little and Wadsworth, 1964). Hawaii, USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii. Wood in Australia: types, properties and uses. (1797) 283. Nanocellulose from eucalyptus (Eucalyptus robusta Smith) pulp was extracted by simply disrupting the hydrogen bond network of celluloses with high pressure homogenization (HPH).It was found that nanocellulose was 20–100 nm in diameter, and presented a narrower molecular weight distribution, lower thermal stability and crystallinity index. The leaf-eating beetle, Maecolaspis favosa, has reportedly caused serious damage to young seedlings and coppice shoots in Florida; older trees are unaffected (Geary et al., 1983). Sydney, Australia: Inkata Press. Source: James A. Duke. The Australasian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) is an online resource that provides immediate access to the wealth of plant specimen information held by Australian herbaria. Species Eucalyptus rigens Brooker & Hopper – eucalyptus P: Species Eucalyptus rigidula Maiden P: Species Eucalyptus risdonii Hook. Tropical Forestry Papers 15. Opportunities for timber production in Hawaii. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin.-Reihe-Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche, 41(3):121-124; 8 ref. Streets RJ, 1962. An assessment of land biomass and energy Newly exposed bark is very smooth and has a glossy surface, whereas older bark becomes finely rough and granular in texture. Volume 1. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. ; 1 pl. Curtis, C.R. A disjunct population occurs just north of Yeppoon in coastal, central Queensland.E. 1, 265pp. Host plants: Eucalyptus saligna ( Myrtaceae ). E. robusta is one of the Eucalyptus species most widely planted around the world. EDDMapS Distribution: This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. Comparison of Eucalyptus grandis provenances and seed orchards in a frost frequent environment. Eucalypts for wood production. 52. Lowland tropical hardwoods. Skolmen RG, 1971. PIER, 2014. 1982. Boxus P, 1992. PSW-152, ii + 6 pp. (Base de dados nacional de espécies exóticas invasora)., Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: I3N Brasil, Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental. Because this species has a large number of economically important uses, it has been actively introduced in tropical and subtropical countries since the 1890s, resulting in the establishment of large Eucalyptus plantations. Phellopsylla formicosa ( Froggatt, 1900 ) Distribution: Australia : introduced into New Zealand : AK ( AMNZ ). Sthwest. However, the high humidity causes shrinkage and expansion which makes it unsuitable for furniture construction in most areas (Skolmen 1971, 1974). The common name of swamp mahogany comes from its preferred habitat of swamps, and its timber's likeness to that of West Indies mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. Genus: Eucalyptus L'Hér. ; 22 pl. No. ; ISBN 0-621-04763-5; 208 ref. E. robusta has a dense, deep crown of dark green leaves and seasonally abundant creamy white flowers, and is suitable for shade, shelter and as an ornamental tree (Poynton, 1979; Hillis and Brown, 1984; Webb et al., 1984). Geary TF, Meskimen GF, Franklin EC, 1983. However, hybrid breakdown (e.g. Langkamp PJ, 1987. 40. Eucalyptus trials in the Northern Territory coastal region. In: Burns RM, Mosquera M, eds. 159, 51-59; 27 ref. vii + 288 pp. 2:xxiv + 677 pp. Auckland, New Zealand: Groome Pöyry Ltd. Zobel BJ, Van Wyk G, Stahl P, 1987. eucalyptus: From the Greek eu ‘good or well’ and calypha ‘covered’, alluding to the calyx which covers the flower like a lid. Sydney: New South Wales University Press, 76-142. 610. Online Database. it is a human commensal). Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agriculture., ix + 374 pp. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/, Grace JK, Ewart DM, Tome CHM, 1996. Delaware. (1977). In: Santalum freycinetianum var. Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Turnbull JW, Kleinig DA, 1980. Full Distribution Listing Native to: New South ... Eucalyptus robusta Sm. Pacif. xvi + 687 pp. ; 23 pp. However, seedlings are unable to tolerate frost, and hard frosts are harmful to young saplings less than 2 m tall. Skolmen RG, 1963. 189-191. Little EL Jr, 1983. Medicinal plants of the world. It occurs from coastal to mountainous locations and can reach a height of up to 50m under ideal conditions (Picture 1). Leaf spots on E. robusta in Hawaii, Brazil, Zimbabwe and Mauritius have been attributed to the fungal pathogens Harknessia hawaiiensis, H. insueta, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides [Glomerella cingulata] and Cylindrocladium ovatum sp. U.S. For. A Catalogue of the Eucalypts. ... Eucalyptus robusta var. vol. 1977. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press. Australian Journal of Botany, 36(1):41-66. Between 1930 and 1960 about 2.3 million trees were planted in Hawaii and by 1960 more than 4650 ha (11,500 acres) of plantations were established in Hawaii (Little and Skolmen, 2003). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. This species occurs in swamps and alongside estuaries in a narrow coastal strip, usually within a few kilometres of the ocean, from Rockhampton, Queensland south to Jervis Bay, New South Wales. I3N-Brasil, 2014. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, Cal. Trees for saltland: a guide to selecting native species for Australia. Moran GF, 1992. It is also found offshore on Great Keppel, Moreton, Fraser and North and South Stradbroke Islands. 1986, Ed. Pacif. : Isolation and identification of robustaol B and other constituents / Qin Guo-Wei, Xu Ren-Sheng / Acta Chimica Sinica, Volume 4, Issue 1, pages 62–67, March 1986 / DOI: 10.1002/cjoc.19860040110 (4) E. robusta forms pure stands or may be associated with other eucalypts such as E. resinifera, E. gummifera (syn. Lowland tropical hardwoods. and Wain, K.K. double recessive, or other unwanted phenotypes) occurs rapidly in generations after the F1 stage (Geary et al., 1983).Reproductive Biology. It is one of the most widely cultivated Eucalyptus species in tropical and subtropical countries, mainly for timber and pulpwood production. Griffin AR, 1989. E. rotunda occurs naturally in the warm humid climate zone, ranging from regions with rare winter frosts and a summer maximum, to a uniform distribution of rainfall throughout the year (Boland et al., 1984). Carlowitz PG von, 1986. Wagner WI, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. New Forests, 6:49-66. Eucalyptus robusta Sm. Strategies for the genetic improvement of yield in Eucalyptus. On arrival he was given his ticket of leave but soon was reconvicted for forgery and sent to the penal settlement of Newcastle. A guide to species selection for tropical and sub-tropical plantations. , 1993. Choice of species and seed sources. Flora of New South Wales Vol. Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. External Aid Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 205. Photo of large trees from Kalopa, Hawaii. having an approximate life in the ground of 8-25 years. potential for the Republic of Panama. Hardy range 8b-11. ; many ref. Common fuelwood crops: a handbook for their pp. In: Hillis WE, Brown AG, eds. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Welcome to the India Biodiversity Portal - A repository of information designed to harness and disseminate collective intelligence on the biodiversity of the Indian subcontinent. Firewood crops. Of all eucalypts, E. camaldulensis has the widest distribution in Australia (Lamprecht 1990). Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 308 pp. Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: I3N Brasil, Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. PSW-8, 30 pp. Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnston RD, Kleinig DA, Turner JD, 1984. Sclerophyllous forests Eucalyptus robusta, commonly known as swamp mahogany or swamp messmate, is a tree native to eastern Australia.Growing in swampy or waterlogged soils, it is up to 30 m (98 ft) high with thick spongy reddish brown bark and dark green broad leaves, which help form a dense canopy.The white to cream flowers appear in autumn and winter. Qualitative evaluation of For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org Online Database. Forest Ecology and Management, 63(2-3):135-152; 14 ref. Botanical descriptions of this species are available (Brooker and Kleinig, 1983; 1994; Chippendale, 1988; Hill, 1991). Swamps. robusta : Sturdy Back to top robusta belongs broadly to the eastern blue gums, subseries Saligninae, series Salignae, section Transversaria, subgenus Symphyomyrtus of the informal classification of Pryor and Johnson (1971). Growing eucalypts in Florida for industrial wood production. Sta, No. It is not favoured for general building purposes because of degradation during drying (Bootle, 1983), or for steam-bending (Keating and Bolza, 1982). Poynton RJ, 1979. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Definitions of eucalyptus robusta, synonyms, antonyms, ... Distribution and habitat. 1962. A palavra Eucalipto (do grego, eu + καλύπτω ) significa “ verdadeira cobertura”, e é isso que as florestas de eucalipto significam para as paisagens Australianas. Soerianegara I, Lemmens RHMJ, eds. Native to Southeastern Australia. Wilcox MD, 1997. Most of these are in Brazil and South Africa, but there also large plantation areas in Argentina, Australia, India, Uruguay, Zambia and other countries (Eldridge et al . Canberra, Australia: Division of Forest Research, CSIRO. Occurs in a very narrow coastal belt from north of Rockhampton in Queensland to Jervis Bay in New South Wales. PROTA, 2014. Studies of its use in plantations as a potential source of woody biomass to generate electricity have also been conducted (King and Krugman, 1980; Schubert and Whitesell, 1985). bivalva (Blakely) Blakely, Key Eucalypts, ed. McClain Printing Co., Parsons, WV. Description. These tend to replace E. robusta on sites with very high water tables. Leonard Hill [Books] Limited, London; Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York. However, the tree does not prefer these conditions and, if artificially situated on better soils on slopes outside the swamps, it grows much faster. Brundrett M, Bougher N, Dell B, Grove T, Malajczuk N, 1996. E. robusta is one of the most widely planted Eucalyptus species, and it has been introduced into many tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperate areas, including many countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, America and the West Indies (see distribution table for details). APNI* Synonyms: Eucalyptus multiflora var. It may split and distort during seasoning and is not stable in fluctuating atmospheric conditions. Shrub and tree species for energy production. Skolmen RG, 1974. The planted forest and the private forest of the Madagascar highlands. This species occurs in swamps and alongside estuaries in a narrow coastal strip, usually within a few kilometres of the ocean, from Rockhampton, Queensland south to Jervis Bay, New South Wales. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Eucalyptus robusta / Wikipedia (2) Eucalyptus robusta / AgroForestryTree Database (3) Studies on the chemical constituents of Eucalyptus robusta Sm. 1981. ; [B]. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO. Research Paper, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. ... 2012. For example, six-year-old trees near San Francisco, USA, survived temperatures as low as -9°C and showed signs of only temporary damage to foliage (King and Krugman, 1980). novus (see review in Fenton et al., 1977; El-Gholl et al., 1993). Little EL Jr, Wadsworth FH, 1964. Eucalyptus robusta Sm.- a case study of an advanced generation hardwood breeding program in southern Florida. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. tropical and sub-tropical plantations. Termite resistance of wood species grown in Hawaii. http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br, Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Base de dados nacional de espécies exóticas invasora (National database of exotic invasive species). Sthwest. Pryor LD, 1976. 15. Also published by PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Coleoptera borers (Brazil) and cockchafers (Vietnam) are also reported pests of E. robusta (see review in Fenton et al, 1977). In Australia on several Eucalyptus spp. Eucalyptus genetic improvement in Madagascar. Pulpwood is the major use of E. robusta in Florida (Durst, 1988). They reproduce by a mixed mating system, with both outcrossing and selfing occurring (Moran, 1992). Berkeley, CA: US. Trunks may become encased by aerial roots, some reaching 20 cm in diameter, under wet tropical conditions such as those that prevail in parts of Hawaii (Jacobs, 1981; Durst, 1988). Eucalyptus robusta belongs in Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus section Latoangulatae because cotyledons are bilobed, leaves are discolorous and have side-veins at a wide angle to the midrib and buds have two opercula. E. robusta occurs naturally in Australia, within a narrow coastal strip from southern New South Wales (near Nowra) to coastal south-eastern Queensland (north-west of Bundaberg). National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. 175 refs. Keating WG, Bolza E, 1982. 2.1. Wang, S.L., Huffman, J.B., and Rockwood, D.L. [Die industrielle Nutzung der Mikrovermehrung.] E.&S. Their machining, seasoning and related characteristics. 2010a, Pritchardia hardyi (Makaleha pritchardia), US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pap. Eucalyptus grandis E. grandis is probably most widely planted eucalypt for industrial wood production, with an estimated plantation area of about 2 million ha in 1987 (Burgess 1988). Incidence of mycorrhiza in nursery and Eucalyptus spp. Genetic variability in fourteen provenances of Eucalyptus species in Hawaii. It has been used for watershed protection, mine site reclamation and dune stabilization (Carlowitz, 1986; Langkamp, 1987; Durst, 1988). Eucalyptus marginata was first formally described in 1802 by James Edward Smith, whose description was published in Transactions of the Linnean Society of London.Smith noted that his specimens had grown from seeds brought from Port Jackson and noted a resemblance to both Eucalyptus robusta and E. pilularis. However, this species has a wide ranging physiological adaptability, and may establish successfully on sites of much lower rainfall (min. Species Eucalyptus rigens Brooker & Hopper – eucalyptus P: Species Eucalyptus rigidula Maiden P: Species Eucalyptus risdonii Hook. 5(1). Clemson A, 1985. Mature trees of E. robusta are remarkably tolerant of frost, especially given that frosts are uncommon in the species' natural range. Juvenile leaves disjunct, ovate, glossy green. It inhabits areas with a rainfall in excess of 1500 mm, which is distributed fairly uniformly throughout the year. Robusta eucalyptus (Eucalyptus robusta), which is also known as swamp mahogany and grows in USDA zones 10 and 11, was introduced to Hawaii from its native Australia in the 1880s. ; 5 ref. Forests, Trees and People Newsletter, No. and London. Plantation forestry in the tropics. xx + 551. Eldridge K, Davidson J, Harwood C, Wyk Gvan, 1994. 3 vols. It also grows on the offshore islands of North Stradbroke, Moreton and Fraser in south-east Queensland. 1192 pp. Forest Products Journal, 46(10):57-60. (1977).E. Livingstone, Ltd., Edinburgh robusta is a medium to large tree with a dense crown and long, spreading branches when grown in open ground. Queensland to E. New South Wales. Wallingford, UK: CABI. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. The risk of introduction of E. robusta is moderate to high. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition. + 3 maps. pp. It grows well on sites in the moist tropics up to an elevation of 1600 m, and with a mean annual temperature of about 23°C. Times of Ceylon Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. A handbook for their identification. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. Agricultural Handbook, No. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Therefore, the probability of this species colonizing new habitats or being intentionally introduced into new habitats remains high. E. robusta is readily distinguished from its close relatives through characteristics of the bark, adult leaves, floral buds and fruits. PSW-169, 12 pp. 3. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, No. The specific epithet (marginata) is a Latin word meaning "furnished with a border". http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. ; 13 ref. Susceptibility of E. robusta to eucalyptus snout beetle, Gonipterus scutellatus, has caused a cessation of planting of the species in some parts of southern Africa (Fenton et al., 1977; Poynton, 1979). Rockwood DL, Meskimen GF, 1991. Fenton R, Roper RE, Watt GR, 1977. For. South African Forestry Journal, No. Evans J, 1982. Handbook of Energy Crops. Uses Pulpwood and Eurymeloides sp. Dvorak WS, Franklin EC, Meskimen G, 1981. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. ; 72 ref. 39; et in Trans. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. At least 5 million eucalyptus robusta trees were planted in Hawaii between 1910 and 1960 in total, for the sake of the forests, but also as a source for sustainable timber, delivering a hardwood that’s gorgeous and deep-red. In: Recovery Outline for the Kauai Ecosystem. Oct 24, 2017 - Explore Stone Koo's board "Eucalyptus robusta" on Pinterest. Adult leaves disjunct, narrow-lanceolate, 10–18 cm long, 1–2 cm wide, green, dull, concolorous. The juvenile foliage is attacked by leaf-blister sawfly (Phylacteophaga froggatti) and autumn gum moth (Mnesampela privata) while adult foliage is susceptible to lerp (Cardiaspina sp. Serv. Growth habits of the Eucalypts. Durst (1988) gives the lower limit of tolerance as -11°C. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Hartney VJ, 1982. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp. lanaiense (Lanai sandalwood), US Fish and Wildlife Service, Distribution: Eastern Australia. 2. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 19 pp. The species is widely adaptable and has been introduced into many tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperate climates including Puerto Rico, southern Florida, coastal California, and Hawaii. Growth of 11 introduced tree species on selected forest sites in Hawaii. In: Collected Papers of Eucalyptus In Guangxi 1981-1989, compiled by Eucalyptus Specialized Committee, Guangxi Forestry Society, 1990. pp. Vol. The specific epithet (marginata) is a Latin word meaning "furnished with a border". SE-23, iii + 43 pp. Duke, J.A. N. Holl. 3. A guide to species selection for Canberra, Australia: Australian National University, pp. - a review. and Duke, J.A. Robusta Eucalyptus wood: its properties and uses. Hernández-Hernández RM, Ramírez E, Castro I, Cano S, 2008. 15-16. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Sydney, Australia: McGraw-Hill Book Company, viii + 443pp. Login to download data. USDA Forest Service Research Paper, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, No. Eucalyptus robusta swampmahogany This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Free and Open Access to Biodiversity Data. Estrada KRFS, Bellei MM, Silva EAMda, 1993. [7 refs.]. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 38 pp. Native distribution: east New South Wales and southeast Queensland, Australia. CABI is a registered EU trademark. 64, 1962. pp. A gardener's guide to eucalypts. Save map. In southern Florida, E. robusta was a major component of a genetic improvement program for pulpwood production which began in the 1960s (Geary et al., 1983). The only other consistently rough-barked species in this group is E. botryoides, which prefers similar coastal but less wet habitats (Boland et al., 1984). Binomial name: Eucalyptus robusta First described: 1793, Smith Distribution: Qld & NSW.
2020 eucalyptus robusta distribution