Areoles are modified branches, from which flowers, more branches, and leaves (when present) may grow. [93] Other sources say that water can be withheld during winter (November to March in the Northern Hemisphere). [97][85] Some cacti, particularly those from the high Andes, are fully frost-hardy when kept dry (e.g. Gymnocalycium)[16] or completely devoid of any external structures (e.g. In most other cacti, the branches are more typically cactus-like, bare of leaves and bark, and covered with spines, as in Pachycereus pringlei or the larger opuntias. Low light levels are sufficient during germination, but afterwards semi-desert cacti need higher light levels to produce strong growth, although acclimatization is needed to conditions in a greenhouse, such as higher temperatures and strong sunlight. Then it might not rain again for months—or even years! Here, they may be kept in pots or grown in the ground. Water may form up to 90% of the total mass of a cactus. [100][101], Grafting is used for species difficult to grow well in cultivation or that cannot grow independently, such as some chlorophyll-free forms with white, yellow or red bodies, or some forms that show abnormal growth (e.g., cristate or monstrose forms). Cactuses, or cacti, are desert plants. Most spines are straight or at most slightly curved, and are described as hair-like, bristle-like, needle-like or awl-like, depending on their length and thickness. [52], It is not known when cacti were first cultivated. The purpose of the growing medium is to provide support and to store water, oxygen and dissolved minerals to feed the plant. Cacti vary greatly in size and general appearance, from buttonlike peyote (Lophophora) and low clumps of prickly pear (Opuntia) and hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus) to the upright columns of barrel cacti (Ferocactus and Echinocactus) and the imposing saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea). The part nearer the top of the stem then produces flowers, the other part spines. [70] Archaeological evidence of the use of this cactus appears to date back to 2,000–2,300 years ago, with carvings and ceramic objects showing columnar cacti. It always amazes me how many common names a plant can have, especially one that is anything but common in our part of the world. In tropical regions, other cacti grow as forest climbers and epiphytes (plants that grow on trees). Many cacti in the opuntia group (subfamily Opuntioideae, opuntioids) also have visible leaves, which may be long-lasting (as in Pereskiopsis species) or be produced only during the growing season and then be lost (as in many species of Opuntia). [32] Nine tribes are recognized within Cactoideae in the International Cactaceae Systematics Group (ICSG) classification; one, Calymmantheae, comprises a single genus, Calymmanthium. The 1905 Vienna botanical congress rejected the name Cactus and instead declared Mammillaria was the type genus of the family Cactaceae. For a more detailed discussion of the phylogeny of the cacti, see Classification of the Cactaceae. Corrections? [15] Climbing, creeping and epiphytic cacti may have only adventitious roots, produced along the stems where these come into contact with a rooting medium. [92] Brown says that more cacti are lost through the "untimely application of water than for any other reason" and that even during the dormant winter season, cacti need some water. Many succulent plants in both the Old and New World – such as some Euphorbiaceae (euphorbias) – bear a striking resemblance to cacti, and may incorrectly be called "cactus" in common usage. [27], The difficulties continued, partly because giving plants scientific names relies on "type specimens". [86] In the case of cacti, there is general agreement that an open medium with a high air content is important. [75], Cacti have many other uses. Bolstered by errant folklore, the Ferocactus has been nicknamed "The Traveler's Friend". For the software, see, Flowers appear from the upper part of an areole, spines from the lower (, The central image in this extract from the, Although the spellings of botanical families have been largely standardized, there is little agreement among botanists as to how these names are to be pronounced. It did, however, conserve the name Cactaceae, leading to the unusual situation in which the family Cactaceae no longer contains the genus after which it was named. [49], The fruits produced by cacti after the flowers have been fertilized vary considerably; many are fleshy, although some are dry. Almost all cacti are succulents, meaning they have thickened, fleshy parts adapted to store water. [15] Cacti can also form new roots quickly when rain falls after a drought. they are xerophytes), but the first ancestors of modern cacti were already adapted to periods of intermittent drought. [10] These may be several times the length of the above-ground body in the case of species such as Copiapoa atacamensis,[10] which grows in one of the driest places in the world, the Atacama Desert in northern Chile. Both contain mescaline. [9], By studying the ratio of 14C to 13C incorporated into a plant—its isotopic signature—it is possible to deduce how much CO2 is taken up at night and how much in the daytime. Fungicides may be of limited value in combating these diseases. Aloe Plants (Aloe vera) Long used by humans for their medicinal benefits, aloe plants often make great additions to bearded dragon habitats. Although a few cactus species inhabit tropical or subtropical areas, most live in and are well adapted to dry regions. [24], Naming and classifying cacti has been both difficult and controversial since the first cacti were discovered for science. Cacti are widely cultivated as ornamentals. These appear to cause only limited visible symptoms, such as chlorotic (pale green) spots and mosaic effects (streaks and patches of paler color). True, most cactus plants thrive in the desert climate, but the plant can also grow in other habitats as well. They can be tree-like (arborescent), meaning they typically have a single more-or-less woody trunk topped by several to many branches. [72] A broad distinction can be made between semidesert cacti and epiphytic cacti, which need different conditions and are best grown separately. However, when he published Species Plantarum in 1753—the starting point for modern botanical nomenclature—he relegated them all to one genus, Cactus. Mangrove forests are considered hardy plants given their ability to survive in high saline waters and low-oxygen soils. [30] Only two of the remaining eight – Cacteae and Rhipsalideae – were shown to be monophyletic in a 2011 study by Hernández-Hernández et al. The process of getting rid of wastes. In addition, various species, notably prickly pears and chollas (Opuntia and Cylindopuntia, respectively), are cultivated as food. Over-collection of cacti for sale has greatly affected some species. Flowers are also produced from areoles. [102] A temperature range of 18–30 Â°C (64–86 Â°F) is suggested for germination; soil temperatures of around 22 Â°C (72 Â°F) promote the best root growth. Desert Habitat. [74] Cacti are one group of drought-resistant plants recommended for dry landscape gardening. Species of Pereskia within clade A always lack two key features of the stem present in most of the remaining "caulocacti": like most non-cacti, their stems begin to form bark early in the plants' life and also lack stomata—structures that control admission of air into a plant and hence control photosynthesis. Unfortunately, some habitats are threatened by pollution, extreme weather, or deforestation. If you haven’t studied this in school yet or have forgotten, it may not be that easy. Whether you're seeking a stylish houseplant for your apartment but struggling to keep more temperamental plants alive, or you're a green-fingered cactus enthusiast determined to get your precious plant to grow and flower this year, Happy Cactus is here to answer all your questions. This suggests the family must have evolved after the ancient continent of Gondwana split into South America and Africa, which occurred during the Early Cretaceous, around 145 to 101 million years ago. Rooting can then take place in an appropriate growing medium at a temperature of around 22 Â°C (72 Â°F). Air spaces were needed between the cells to allow carbon dioxide to diffuse inwards. Fleshy, colorful and sweet-tasting fruits are associated with seed dispersal by birds. (The two highly specialized species of Maihuenia are something of an exception. They have persistent leaves, and when older, bark-covered stems. Many plants rest (stop putting on growth) from late Fall to early Spring, when temperatures are cool and daylight length is short, and during mid-Summer, when temperatures are at their peak. [91], Semi-desert cacti need careful watering. Some cacti have flattened spines (e.g. According to the IUCN, 31 per cent of cactus species are currently critically threatened with extinction, making them more endangered than mammals and birds. For the former genus, "Cacti" redirects here. With one exception, they are native to the Americas, where their range extends from Patagonia to British Columbia and Alberta in western Canada. Many others can reproduce by fragmentation, whereby segments broken from the main plant will readily root to form clonal individuals. Exceptions occur in three groups of cacti. [10], Cacti whose stems are even smaller may be described as globular (or globose). [10], Tall treelike habit (Pachycereus pringlei), Tall unbranched columnar habit (Cephalocereus), Shorter clustered columnar habit (Ferocactus pilosus), Solitary globular habit (Ferocactus echidne), Clustered globular habit (Rebutia species), The leafless, spiny stem is the characteristic feature of the majority of cacti (and all of those belonging to the largest subfamily, the Cactoideae). [62] The Indian fig cactus was probably already present in the Caribbean when the Spanish arrived, and was soon after brought to Europe. [69] Peyote is perceived as a means of accessing the spirit world. When sufficiently moist air is present, such as during fog or early morning mist, spines can condense moisture, which then drips onto the ground and is absorbed by the roots. Cacti definition: → cactus | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples A 2005 study suggested the genus Pereskia was basal within the Cactaceae, but confirmed earlier suggestions it was not monophyletic, i.e., did not include all the descendants of a common ancestor. Fusarium rot can gain entry through a wound and cause rotting accompanied by red-violet mold. [35] However, the current species diversity of cacti is thought to have arisen only in the last 10–5 million years (from the late Miocene into the Pliocene). Taproots may aid in stabilizing the larger columnar cacti. A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses, or less commonly, cactus)[3] is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,[Note 1] a family comprising about 127 genera with some 1750 known species of the order Caryophyllales. Pereskia species superficially resemble other tropical forest trees. These enter the skin and are difficult to remove due to being very fine and easily broken, causing long-lasting irritation. [10], Like their spines, cactus flowers are variable. 4. [30][31][32] The ICSG classification of the cactus family recognizes four subfamilies, the largest of which is divided into nine tribes. [39], Rhipsalis baccifera is the exception; it is native to both the Americas and the Old World, where it is found in tropical Africa, Madagascar, and Sri Lanka. Hunter-gatherers likely collected cactus fruits in the wild and brought them back to their camps. [100] Seed is sown in a moist growing medium and then kept in a covered environment, until 7–10 days after germination, to avoid drying out. [10] A mature saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) is said to be able to absorb as much as 200 U.S. gallons (760 l; 170 imp gal) of water during a rainstorm. Like Pereskia species today, early ancestors may have been able to switch from the normal C3 mechanism, where carbon dioxide is used continuously in photosynthesis, to CAM cycling, in which when the stomata are closed, carbon dioxide produced by respiration is stored for later use in photosynthesis. Areoles often have multicellular hairs (trichomes) that give the areole a hairy or woolly appearance, sometimes of a distinct color such as yellow or brown. The stem of cacti is the main food-manufacturing and food-storage organ for most species. Visit a pond and make a list of animals found inside the water. Two species have a long history of use by the indigenous peoples of the Americas: peyote, Lophophora williamsii, in North America, and the San Pedro cactus, Echinopsis pachanoi, in South America. The Bayesian consensus cladogram from this study is shown below. In the genus Pereskia, the branches are covered with leaves, so the species of this genus may not be recognized as cacti. See more. "Helminosporium rot" is caused by Bipolaris cactivora (syn. It spread rapidly in the Mediterranean area, both naturally and by being introduced—so much so, early botanists assumed it was native to the area. All cacti have some adaptations to promote efficient water use. Illegal collecting of cacti from the wild continues to pose a threat. [10], Other cacti have a quite different appearance. Areoles are highly specialized and very condensed shoots or branches. Prickly pear (Opuntia), cholla (Cylindropuntia),...…, In cacti, spines are wholly transformed leaves that protect the plant from herbivores, radiate heat from...…. The bodies of cacti other than opuntias are less often eaten, although Anderson reported that Neowerdermannia vorwerkii is prepared and eaten like potatoes in upland Bolivia. The stem may also be ribbed or fluted in shape. Such stems contain chlorophyll and are able to carry out photosynthesis; they also have stomata (small structures that can open and close to allow passage of gases). The tallest[Note 2] free-standing cactus is Pachycereus pringlei, with a maximum recorded height of 19.2 m (63 ft),[6] and the smallest is Blossfeldia liliputiana, only about 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter at maturity. Water loss is proportional to surface area, whereas the amount of water present is proportional to volume. Cacti show many adaptations to conserve water. Most cacti live in habitats subject to at least some drought. This is particularly true of tree-living cacti, such as Rhipsalis and Schlumbergera, but also of some ground-living cacti, such as Ariocarpus. Mammillaria rekoi), Unusual flattened spines of Sclerocactus papyracanthus, Most ground-living cacti have only fine roots, which spread out around the base of the plant for varying distances, close to the surface. Preparation is crucial when moving a cactus plant. Cacti can be distinguished from other succulent plants by the presence of areoles, small cushionlike structures with trichomes (plant hairs) and, in almost all species, spines or barbed bristles (glochids). Smaller and younger specimens of Cephalocereus senilis, for example, are columnar, whereas older and larger specimens may become tree-like. It is very different in appearance from L. williamsii. Long used by the peoples of Central and North America, demand fell rapidly when European manufacturers began to produce synthetic dyes in the middle of the 19th century. Most cacti—opuntias and cactoids—specialize in surviving in hot and dry environments (i.e. [46], Hummingbirds are significant pollinators of cacti. Tree-living epiphytic and climbing cacti necessarily have different centers of diversity, as they require moister environments. Using this approach, most of the Pereskia species investigated exhibit some degree of CAM-cycling, suggesting this ability was present in the ancestor of all cacti. The stem is typically succulent, meaning it is adapted to store water. Flower buds, particularly of Cylindropuntia species, are also consumed. [100] Otherwise, stem cuttings can be made, ideally from relatively new growth. [37] Precisely when after this split cacti evolved is less clear. [48] Other hummingbird-pollinated genera include Cleistocactus and Disocactus. Experienced collectors of peyote remove a thin slice from the top of the plant, leaving the growing point intact, thus allowing the plant to regenerate. [40] The alternative theory is the species initially crossed the Atlantic on European ships trading between South America and Africa, after which birds may have spread it more widely.[41]. The Saguaro is at home on desert slopes, flats, and rocky areas up to about 4000 feet. One evolutionary question at present unanswered is whether the switch to full CAM photosynthesis in stems occurred only once in the core cacti, in which case it has been lost in Maihuenia, or separately in Opuntioideae and Cactoideae, in which case it never evolved in Maihuenia.[9]. A cactus is a kind of a plant adapted to hot, dry climates. The ribbed or fluted stems of many cacti allow the stem to shrink during periods of drought and then swell as it fills with water during periods of availability. Range: Arizona, California and Sonora, Mexico Care: The first word in care for the Saguaro is patience. Their system has been used as the basis of subsequent classifications. While the desert, particularly the subtropical desert, seems like it would be a very hostile place for living things, the fact is that many species of plants and animals have evolved and adapted to the environment. in the angle between the leaf stalk and the stem). Cacti generally have thick herbaceous or woody chlorophyll-containing stems. Most species of cacti have lost true leaves, retaining only spines, which are highly modified leaves. In situ conservation involves preserving habits through enforcement of legal protection and the creation of specially protected areas such as national parks and reserves. The stomata remain closed throughout the day, and photosynthesis uses only this stored CO2. These discourage animals from eating them. [111] There are no treatments for virus diseases. [106][107], Fungi, bacteria and viruses attack cacti, the first two particularly when plants are over-watered. Cultivated forms are often significantly less spiny or even spineless. Immediately below the outer epidermis, a hypodermal layer developed made up of cells with thickened walls, offering mechanical support. In Central and South America, species of Opuntia, Cereus, and others are used as living fences, and wood from columnar cacti is used as fuel in some desert regions. Helminosporium cactivorum[108]); Phytophthora species also cause similar rotting in cacti. [8] The outer layer of the stem usually has a tough cuticle, reinforced with waxy layers, which reduce water loss. The habitat contains all an animal needs to survive such as food and shelter. Most cacti grow in the ground, but several tropical species—including leaf cactus (Epiphyllum), Rhipsalis, and Schlumbergera—are epiphytes, growing on other plants; others live on hard substrates such as rocks, while yet others climb far up trees. These may only be moved between countries for scientific purposes, and only then when accompanied by both export and import permits. The popularity of cacti means many books are devoted to their cultivation. Most cacti live in habitats subject to at least some drought. [101], Reproduction by cuttings makes use of parts of a plant that can grow roots. [9], The remaining cacti fall into only two genera, Pereskia and Maihuenia, and are rather different,[9] which means any description of cacti as a whole must frequently make exceptions for them. CAM-cycling is present in Pereskia species. The appearance of the plant varies also according to whether the stem surface is smooth or ornamented with protruding tubercles, ridges, or grooves. Cactus spines are produced from specialized structures called areoles, a kind of highly reduced branch. A microhabitat is a small area which differs somehow from the surrounding habitat. [83], Conservation of cacti can be in situ or ex situ. Cacti may also be planted outdoors in regions with suitable climates. The concentration of salts in the root cells of cacti is relatively high. Concern for water conservation in arid regions has led to the promotion of gardens requiring less watering (xeriscaping). The two species of Maihuenia have small, globe-shaped bodies with prominent leaves at the top.[9]. Those that feed on sap include mealybugs, living on both stems and roots; scale insects, generally only found on stems; whiteflies, which are said to be an "infrequent" pest of cacti;[105] red spider mites, which are very small but can occur in large numbers, constructing a fine web around themselves and badly marking the cactus via their sap sucking, even if they do not kill it; and thrips, which particularly attack flowers. They can provide some shade, which lowers the temperature of the surface of the cactus, also reducing water loss. For example, the type locality of Pelecyphora strobiliformis near Miquihuana, Mexico, was virtually denuded of plants, which were dug up for sale in Europe. [60] Fruits of other opuntias are also eaten, generally under the same name, tuna. When mature, they have woody stems that may be covered with bark and long-lasting leaves that provide the main means of photosynthesis. Old World populations are polyploid, and regarded as distinct subspecies, supporting the idea that the spread was not recent. [54] The Aztecs symbolically linked the ripe red fruits of an opuntia to human hearts; just as the fruit quenches thirst, so offering human hearts to the sun god ensured the sun would keep moving. In 1737, he placed the cacti he knew into two genera, Cactus and Pereskia. [12] The structure of the leaves varies somewhat between these groups. The bulk of the stem, however, consists of thin-walled storage cells that contain mucilaginous substances that prevent the loss of moisture. A word of caution: wild cactus cannot be harvested legally in most areas, so this information applies to cultivated cacti in the landscape only. [9] Other species of cactus with long-lasting leaves, such as the opuntioid Pereskiopsis, also have succulent leaves. [28] A further difficulty is that many cacti were given names by growers and horticulturalists rather than botanists; as a result, the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (which governs the names of cacti, as well as other plants) were often ignored. Roots of cacti can be eaten by the larvae of sciarid flies and fungus gnats. Only the tropical genera Pereskia and Pereskopsis, both vines, have conventional-looking functional leaves, while the leaves of the Andean Maihuenia are rounded, not flattened. Many smaller cacti have globe-shaped stems, combining the highest possible volume for water storage, with the lowest possible surface area for water loss from transpiration. "[44], Bees are the most common pollinators of cacti; bee-pollination is considered to have been the first to evolve. The frames of wattle and daub houses built by the Seri people of Mexico may use parts of Carnegiea gigantea. Development takes many forms. In full CAM, the stomata open only at night, when temperatures and water loss are lowest. [11] In leafless cacti, areoles are often borne on raised areas on the stem where leaf bases would have been. In the absence of leaves, enlarged stems carry out photosynthesis. The prominence of these ribs depends on how much water the stem is storing: when full (up to 90% of the mass of a cactus may be water), the ribs may be almost invisible on the swollen stem, whereas when the cactus is short of water and the stems shrink, the ribs may be very visible. Butterfly-pollinated flowers are usually brightly colored, opening during the day, whereas moth-pollinated flowers are often white or pale in color, opening only in the evening and at night. Many other species have become naturalized outside the Americas after having been introduced by people, especially in Australia, Hawaii, and the Mediterranean region. These layers are responsible for the grayish or bluish tinge to the stem color of many cacti.[10]. [43], Bat-pollination is relatively uncommon in flowering plants, but about a quarter of the genera of cacti are known to be pollinated by bats—an unusually high proportion, exceeded among eudicots by only two other families, both with very few genera. The grandparent will move the flowerbox halfway out of the sun. Updates? Their stems are typically flattened, almost leaf-like in appearance, with fewer or even no spines. Because each habitat is different, animals and plants found in a particular habitat have changed or … Thus, Stenocereus eruca has stems growing along the ground, rooting at intervals. Cactus stems are often visibly waxy.[10]. Tissue derived from the petals and sepals continues the pericarpel, forming a composite tube—the whole may be called a floral tube, although strictly speaking only the part furthest from the base is floral in origin. For cacti adapted to drought, the three main centers are Mexico and the southwestern United States; the southwestern Andes, where they are found in Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina; and eastern Brazil, away from the Amazon Basin. Many cacti have roots that spread out widely, but only penetrate a short distance into the soil. The function of such leaves cannot be photosynthesis; a role in the production of plant hormones, such as auxin, and in defining axillary buds has been suggested. When cacti are grown in containers, recommendations as to how this should be achieved vary greatly; Miles Anderson says that if asked to describe a perfect growing medium, "ten growers would give 20 different answers". As they do so, they lose water through transpiration. Many live in extremely dry environments, even being found in the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth. This article was most recently revised and updated by, Pima Community College - Major Types of Cacti, cactus - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), cactus - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Spines are present even in those cacti with leaves, such as Pereskia, Pereskiopsis and Maihuenia, so they clearly evolved before complete leaflessness. The florist will sigh and add a wall divider and proper soil to both sides. Opuntioids and Maihuenia have leaves that appear to consist only of a midrib. At … Production of new organisms of own kind. See more. The word pitaya or pitahaya (usually considered to have been taken into Spanish from Haitian creole[64]) can be applied to a range of "scaly fruit", particularly those of columnar cacti. Deserts are the driest places on Earth—they get fewer than 10 inches (25 centimeters) of rain a year. [80] Some exceptions are allowed, e.g., for "naturalized or artificially propagated plants". Some cacti have taproots; in genera such as Copiapoa, these are considerably larger and of a greater volume than the body. [43] Day-flying butterflies and nocturnal moths are associated with different pollination syndromes. They rapidly became a major weed problem, but are now controlled by biological agents, particularly the moth Cactoblastis cactorum. Some cacti only have spines when young, possibly only when seedlings. In one case, a young saguaro only 12 cm (4.7 in) tall had a root system with a diameter of 2 m (7 ft), but no more than 10 cm (4 in) deep. Thus, a 2011 study found "an extraordinarily high proportion of genera" were not monophyletic, so were not all descendants of a single common ancestor. by a groove in the stem) or appear entirely separate (a dimorphic areole). However, this alone was not sufficient; cacti with only these adaptations appear to do very little photosynthesis in their stems. Cacti are native through most of the length of North and South America, from British Columbia and Alberta southward; the southernmost limit of their range extends far into Chile and Argentina. [32] Classification of the cacti currently remains uncertain and is likely to change. Type specimens are normally prepared by compression and drying, after which they are stored in herbaria to act as definitive references. [5] Cacti occur in a wide range of shapes and sizes. The woody parts of cacti, such as Cereus repandus and Echinopsis atacamensis, are used in buildings and in furniture. None are known to be wind-pollinated and self-pollination occurs in only a very few species; for example the flowers of some species of Frailea do not open (cleistogamy). The process of removal of wastes in plants. Cactus is not the only Latin-derived English word ending in –us, and most are conventionally pluralized in the English manner. The center of the stem, the cortex, developed "chlorenchyma" – a plant tissue made up of relatively unspecialized cells containing chloroplasts, arranged into a "spongy layer" and a "palisade layer" where most of the photosynthesis occurs. Some cacti produce "pads" or "joints" that can be detached or cleanly cut off. [59][60], The plant now known as Opuntia ficus-indica, or the Indian fig cactus, has long been an important source of food. Climbing cacti can be very large; a specimen of Hylocereus was reported as 100 meters (330 ft) long from root to the most distant stem. Their stems are typically flattened, almost leaf-like in appearance, with fewer or even no spines, such as the well-known Christmas cactus or Thanksgiving cactus (in the genus Schlumbergera). Other cacti produce offsets that can be removed. The, The tallest living cactus is a specimen of, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, International Organization for Succulent Plant Study, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, "Windstorm Fells 78-Foot Cactus--Tallest in World", "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase", "Evolution of CAM and C4 Carbon‐Concentrating Mechanisms", "The Domestication of Artichoke and Cardoon: From Roman Times to the Genomic Age", "Seed morphology, polyploidy and the evolutionary history of the epiphytic cactus, "The Late Pleistocene dispersal of modern humans in the Americas", "Cactus-eating moth threatens favorite Mexican food", "Potexvirus diversity in Cactaceae from São Paulo State in Brazil",, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles containing potentially dated statements from February 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from March 2012, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 17:39.
2020 habitat of cactus in one word