And of its goodness a strong proof is this: what is now left of our soil rivals any other in being all-productive and abundant in crops and rich in pasturage for all kinds of cattle; (111a) and at that period, in addition to their fine quality it produced these things in vast quantity. Moreover, there were a great number of elephants in the island; for as there was provision for all other sorts of animals, both for those which live in lakes and marshes and rivers, (115a) and also for those which live in mountains and on plains, so there was for the animal which is the largest and most voracious of all. We hope you find them convenient to view, copy or print for your studies, especially if you are just becoming familiar with these ancient classics. SOCRATES    Do you remember what were the points of which I required you to speak? And he named them all; the eldest, who was the first king, he named Atlas, and after him the whole island and the ocean were called Atlantic. For these histories tell of a mighty power which unprovoked made an expedition against the whole of Europe and Asia, and to which your city put an end. Sources are credible and the hunt continues. The fact is, that wherever the extremity of winter frost or of summer does not prevent, (23a) mankind exist, sometimes in greater, sometimes in lesser numbers. The text is numbered according to the Henricus Stephanus pagination from 1578, by which Plato's dialogues are cited. And what of their training? Ancient underwater ruins found in several places across the globe continuously spark the question whether or not they're a part of the legend of Atlantis. Whereas just when you and other nations are beginning to be provided with letters and the other requisites of civilized life, after the usual interval, the stream from heaven, like a pestilence, comes pouring down, and leaves only those of you who are destitute of letters and education; (23b) and so you have to begin all over again like children, and know nothing of what happened in ancient times, either among us or among yourselves. SOCRATES    I see that I shall receive in my turn a perfect and splendid feast of reason. (23d) Solon marvelled at his words, and earnestly requested the priests to inform him exactly and in order about these former citizens. On the northward side of it they had established their public dwellings and winter mess-rooms, and all the arrangements in the way of buildings which were required for the community life (112c) of themselves and the priests; but all was devoid of gold or silver, of which they made no use anywhere; on the contrary, they aimed at the mean between luxurious display and meanness, and built themselves tasteful houses, wherein they and their children's children grew old and handed them on in succession unaltered to others like themselves. I will tell you the reason of this: Solon, who was intending to use the tale for his poem, enquired into the meaning of the names, and found that the early Egyptians in writing them down had translated them into their own language, and he recovered the meaning of the several names and when copying them out again translated them into our language. For because of their headship they had a large supply of imports from abroad, (114e) and the island itself furnished most of the requirements of daily life,�metals, to begin with, both the hard kind and the fusible kind, which are extracted by mining, and also that kind which is now known only by name but was more than a name then, there being mines of it in many places of the island,�I mean �orichalcum,� which was the most precious of the metals then known, except gold. (108d) But besides the gods and goddesses whom you have mentioned, I would specially invoke Mnemosyne; for all the important part of my discourse is dependent on her favour, and if I can recollect and recite enough of what was said by the priests and brought hither by Solon, I doubt not that I shall satisfy the requirements of this theatre. CRITIAS And I accept the task, Timaeus; but the request which you yourself made at the beginning, (106c) when you asked for indulgence on the ground of the magnitude of the theme you were about to expound, that same request I also make now on my own behalf, and I claim indeed to be granted a still larger measure of indulgence (107a) in respect of the discourse I am about to deliver. And when each of them had made this invocation both for himself and for his seed after him, he drank of the cup and offered it up as a gift in the temple of the God; and after spending the interval in supping and necessary business. Consider now, Socrates, the order of the feast as we have arranged it. All the exterior of the temple they coated with silver, save only the pinnacles, and these they coated with gold. And the king was not to have the power of life and death over any of his kinsmen unless he had the assent of the majority of the ten. Also there were guardhouses at intervals (117d) for the guards, the more trusted of whom were appointed-to keep watch in the lesser zone, which was nearer the Acropolis while the most trusted of all had houses given them within the citadel, near the persons of the kings. But when the portion of divinity within them was now becoming faint and weak through being ofttimes blended with a large measure of mortality, (121b) whereas the human temper was becoming dominant, then at length they lost their comeliness, through being unable to bear the burden of their possessions, and became ugly to look upon, in the eyes of him who has the gift of sight; for they had lost the fairest of their goods from the most precious of their parts; but in the eyes of those who have no gift of perceiving what is the truly happy life, it was then above all that they appeared to be superlatively fair and blessed, filled as they were with lawless ambition and power. These were inscribed by the first kings on a pillar of orichalcum, (119d) which was situated in the middle of the island, at the temple of Poseidon, whither the kings were gathered together every fifth and every sixth year alternately, thus giving equal honour to the odd and to the even number. Such then was the state of things round about the abode of the kings. In the interior of the temple the roof was of ivory, curiously wrought everywhere with gold and silver and orichalcum; and all the other parts, the walls and pillars and floor, they coated with orichalcum. Some theories even suggest the island will rise from the sea in the time of Armageddon. For we ordained that as regards marriages and children all should have all in common, so that no one should ever recognize his own particular offspring, but all should regard all (18d) as their actual kinsmen�as brothers and sisters, if of a suitable age; as parents and grandparents, if more advanced in age; and as children and children's children, if junior in age. Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias, written in 360 BCE, contain the earliest references to Atlantis. The Critias, the second part of Plato's work, comprises an account of the rise and fall of Atlantis, an ancient, mighty, and prosperous empire ruled by the descendants of Poseidon, which ultimately sank into the sea. I mean to say, he replied, that in mind you are all young; there is no old opinion handed down among you by ancient tradition, nor any science which is hoary with age. There was an altar too, which in size and workmanship corresponded to this magnificence, and the palaces, in like manner, answered to the greatness of the kingdom and the glory of the temple. In this fashion, then, they dwelt, acting as guardians of their own citizens and as leaders, by their own consent, of the rest of the Greeks and they watched carefully that their own numbers, of both men and women, who were neither too young nor too old to fight, should remain for all time as nearly as possible the same, namely, about 20,000. So by just allotments they received each one his own, and they settled their countries; and when they had thus settled them, they reared us up, even as herdsmen (109c) rear their flocks, to be their cattle and nurslings; only it was not our bodies that they constrained by bodily force, like shepherds guiding their flocks with stroke of staff, but they directed from the stern where the living creature is easiest to turn about, laying hold on the soul by persuasion, as by a rudder, according to their own disposition; and thus they drove and steered all the mortal kind. (120a) When therefore, after slaying the bull in the accustomed manner, they had burnt its limbs, they filled a bowl of wine and cast in a clot of blood for each of them; the rest of the victim they put in the fire, after having purified the column all round. After him I am to follow, taking over from him mankind, already as it were created by his speech, and taking over from you (27b) a select number of men superlatively well trained. (111e) Such was the natural state of the country, which was cultivated, as we may well believe, by true husbandmen, who made husbandry their business, and were lovers of honour, and of a noble nature, and had a soil the best in the world, and abundance of water, and in the heaven above an excellently attempered climate. And although I very well know that my request may appear to be somewhat and discourteous, I must make it nevertheless. Consequently they thought scorn of everything save virtue and lightly esteemed their rich possessions, bearing with ease (121a) the burden, as it were, of the vast volume of their gold and other goods; and thus their wealth did not make them drunk with pride so that they lost control of themselves and went to ruin; rather, in their soberness of mind they clearly saw that all these good things are increased by general amity combined with virtue, whereas the eager pursuit and worship of these goods not only causes the goods themselves to diminish but makes virtue also to perish with them. For myself, I know not whether I could recall to mind all that I heard yesterday; but as to the account I heard such a great time ago, I should be immensely surprised if a single detail of it has escaped me. For this story will be admirably suited to the festival of the Goddess which is now being held, because of its connection with her; and the fact that it is no invented fable but genuine history is all-important. Many great deluges have taken place during the nine thousand years, for that is the number of years which have elapsed since the time of which I am speaking; (111b) and during all this time and through so many changes, there has never been any considerable accumulation of the soil coming down from the mountains, as in other places, but the earth has fallen away all round and sunk out of sight. This reply would start with an account of the creation of theuniverse down to the creation of human beings and, in a second step,show an ideal society in motion. The story then told was a long one, and it began something like this. Considered as the sequel to the Republic, “Timaeus” speculates about cosmology, where the universe as a whole is divine and ruled by mathematical truths. . (18b) Timaeus describes the creation of the world and explains natural phenomena while Critias talks of a lost island, its people and ancient Athenians. SOCRATES    And then it was, Solon, that the manhood of your State showed itself conspicuous for valor and might in the sight of all the world. SOCRATES    We said, if I am not mistaken, that the guardians should be gifted with a temperament in a high degree both passionate and philosophical; and that then they would be as they ought to be, gentle to their friends and fierce with their enemies. It shall be done. And there you dwelt, having such laws as these and still better ones, (24e) and excelled all mankind in all virtue, as became the children and disciples of the gods.
2020 timaeus and critias atlantis