United States' concept of a reservation had not been used by the Spanish, Mexicans or other Apache neighbors before. The Apaches participate in many religious dances, including the rain dance, dances for the crop and harvest, and a spirit dance. The more well-to-do had this kind. Eastern Apache varieties are Chiricahua, Mescalero, Jicarilla, Lipan, Kiowa-Apache, and Navajo. In early 20th century Parisian society, the word Apache was adopted into French, essentially meaning an outlaw.[10]. On the larger level, the Western Apache organized bands into what Grenville Goodwin called "groups". The low tone is not marked. Albert Schroeder) consider Goodwin's classification inconsistent with pre-reservation cultural divisions. The women also cultivated watermelons, pumpkins, corn, later grain, etc. (1983). Culturally, the term "Western Apache" is often used to refer to the four modern Apache Indian tribes of Arizona: the Tonto, San Carlos, White Mountain, and Yavapai Apache tribes. Other times a band would leave without permission, to raid, return to their homeland to forage, or to simply get away. Beavers, minks, muskrats, and weasels were also hunted for their hides and body parts but were not eaten. Important standardized ceremonies include the puberty ceremony (Sunrise Dance) of young women, Navajo chants, Jicarilla "long-life" ceremonies, and Plains Apache "sacred-bundle" ceremonies. Another technique was the relay method where hunters positioned at various points would chase the prey in turns in order to tire the animal. Any of the various powers may be acquired by man and, if properly handled, used for a variety of purposes.[40]. The office was not hereditary, and the position was often filled by members of different extended families. [10] The Tonto Apache, calling themselves Dilzhe'e, utilized the lands to the north, east and south; while the various Yavapai bands were using country to the north, the west and the south. (2010b) "Cycles of Renewal, Transportable Assets: Aspects of Ancestral Apache Housing". In the mid-16th century, these mobile groups lived in tents, hunted bison and other game, and used dogs to pull travois loaded with their possessions. They overlapped in the Upper Verde.[11]. [9] Tourism contributes greatly to the economy of the tribe. It consists of 85 acres that was carved out of the Tonto National Forest in 1972. After the meat was smoked into jerky around November, a migration from the farm sites along the stream banks in the mountains to winter camps in the Salt, Black, Gila river and even the Colorado River valleys. [citation needed]. (Band organization was strongest in Chiricahua society). [citation needed] The Plains Apache have a significant Southern Plains cultural influence. These two terms are reciprocal like the grandparent/grandchild terms. Furthermore, the grandparent terms are reciprocal, that is, a grandparent will use the same term to refer to their grandchild in that relationship. [23], In 1875, United States military forced the removal of an estimated 1500 Yavapai and Dilzhe'e Apache (better known as Tonto Apache) from the Rio Verde Indian Reserve and its several thousand acres of treaty lands promised to them by the United States government. The Western Apache from Bylas use the word Dilzhę́’é to refer to both the San Carlos and Tonto Apache groups. Additionally, there are separate words for cross-cousins: -zeedń "cross-cousin (either same-sex or opposite-sex of speaker)", -iłnaaʼaash "male cross-cousin" (only used by male speakers). Two terms are used for same-sex and opposite-sex siblings. ), Tonto leader (bilingual Kwevkepaya-Tonto-Apache or Kwevkepaya-Pinaleno-Apache leader), For the fictional character from the Lone Ranger who was Comanche (sometimes identified as Comanche Apache), see, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Yavapai-Apache Nation of the Camp Verde Indian Reservation, White Mountain Apache Tribe of the Fort Apache Reservation, San Carlos Apache Tribe of the San Carlos Reservation, THE APACHES AND YAVAPAI, CRUCIAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THEM, "Official website of the Yavapai-Apache Nation", Part Two – Arizona Indian Tribes Preserved Their Identities, Mazatzal Hotel & Casino - Tonto Apache Tribe, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tonto_Apache&oldid=991360068, Federally recognized tribes in the United States, Articles lacking in-text citations from July 2011, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-LCCN identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. "The southern Athapaskan languages". [18], The Spanish described Plains dogs as very white, with black spots, and "not much larger than water spaniels. The chief was the closest societal role to a leader in Apache cultures. same-sex father's brother's child or mother's sister's child)", -´-láh "opposite-sex sibling or opposite parallel cousin (i.e. The reservation is adjacent to the Town of Payson, and has a population of 140 people, with 110 of them being enrolled Tribal members. Goodwin's Northern Tonto consisted of Bald Mountain, Fossil Creek, Mormon Lake, and Oak Creek bands; Southern Tonto consisted of the Mazatzal band and unidentified "semi-bands". Many Apache ceremonies use masked representations of religious spirits. ", "Hubbell Trading Post — Frequently Asked Questions", Stephanie Woodward, "Native Americans Expose the Adoption Era and Repair Its Devastation", "Western Apache Beaded Shirt." In 1875, the Tonto and Yavapai were forcibly moved to the San Carlos Apache Reservation. Tonto is one of the major dialects of the Western Apache language. The Chiricahua language has four different words for grandparent: -chú[note 2] "maternal grandmother", -tsúyé "maternal grandfather", -chʼiné "paternal grandmother", -nálé "paternal grandfather". Seymour, Deni J. Some Tonto Apache gradually returned to Payson after 20 years of exile to find white settlers had taken much of their land. The Apache tribes have two distinctly different kinship term systems: a Chiricahua type and a Jicarilla type. More than 100 Yavapai died during the winter trek. Influenced by the Plains Indians, Western Apaches wore animal hide decorated with seed beads for clothing. Grenville Goodwin in The Social Organization of the Western Apache (1942) divided the Tonto into two groups: the Northern Tonto and Southern Tonto. The name Tonto Apache has been widely used by most people outside the Western Apache communities. [15] Anthropological evidence suggests that the Apache and Navajo peoples lived in these same northern locales before migrating to the Southwest sometime between AD 1200 and 1500. [8], Today, the reservation spans 665 acres (2.7 km2), in four separate locales. The different groups were located in Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. The people were held there in internment for 25 years while white settlers took over their land. (1960). Lipan and Kiowa-Apache are nearly extinct. The term is also used for their dialect, one of the three dialects of the Western Apache language (a Southern Athabaskan language). In May, the Western Apache baked and dried agave crowns that were pounded into pulp and formed into rectangular cakes. Unlike the Chiricahua system, the Jicarilla have only two terms for grandparents according to sex: -chóó "grandmother", -tsóyéé "grandfather". The Tonto Apache (Dilzhę́’é, also Dilzhe'e, Dilzhe’eh Apache) is one of the groups of Western Apache people. [17] They left behind a more austere set of tools and material goods than other Southwestern cultures. The Tonto Apache Tribe is currently in the process of enacting key provisions of SORNA. Hunting was done primarily by men, although there were sometimes exceptions depending on animal and culture (e.g. The Fort Apache, San Carlos, Yavapai-Apache, Tonto Apache, and the Fort McDowell Mohave-Apache Indian reservations are home to the majority of Western Apache and are the bases of their federally recognized tribes. Recent experiments show these dogs may have pulled loads up to 50 lb (20 kg) on long trips, at rates as high as two or three miles per hour (3 to 5 km/h). Foster, Morris W; & McCollough, Martha. Most commonly, Europeans learned to identify the tribes by translating their exonym, what another group whom the Europeans encountered first called the Apache peoples. Today, the tribal community consists of 900 members, 600 of whom live on the reservation. He wrote: After seventeen days of travel, I came upon a 'rancheria' of the Indians who follow these cattle (bison). Other plants utilized by the Lipan include: agarita, blackberries, cattails, devil's claw, elderberries, gooseberries, hackberries, hawthorn, juniper, Lamb's-quarters, locust, mesquite, mulberries, oak, palmetto, pecan, pinyon, prickly pears, raspberries, screwbeans, seed grasses, strawberries, sumac, sunflowers, Texas persimmons, walnuts, western yellow pine, wild cherries, wild grapes, wild onions, wild plums, wild potatoes, wild roses, yucca flowers, and yucca fruit. [25] The Army sent this band and the Chiricahua scouts who had tracked them to military confinement in Florida at Fort Pickens and, subsequently, Ft. Sill, Oklahoma. History: Jewelry. "Eastern Apache Wizardcraft". The term is also used for their dialect, one of the three dialects of the Western Apache language (a Southern Athabaskan language). "The Apachean culture pattern and its origins: Synonymy", in A. Ortiz (Ed.). Since then, other anthropologists (e.g. The Lipan and Plains Apache systems are very similar. The following is a formulation by the anthropologist Keith Basso of the Western Apache's concept of diyí': The term diyí' refers to one or all of a set of abstract and invisible forces which are said to derive from certain classes of animals, plants, minerals, meteorological phenomena, and mythological figures within the Western Apache universe. These dances were mostly for influencing the weather and enriching their food resources. Seymour, Deni J. The Yavapai Wars, or the Tonto Wars, were a series of armed conflicts between the Yavapai and Tonto tribes against the United States in Arizona. Their reservation has many significant historic sites which have been preserved, including the Montezuma Castle National Monument. Twenty years later, some of the Tonto Tribe returned to the Payson area. The most famous speaker of an Apache language was Geronimo who spoke Chiricahua Apache. Other names for them include Ná'įįsha, Ná'ęsha, Na'isha, Na'ishandine, Na-i-shan-dina, Na-ishi, Na-e-ca, Ną'ishą́, Nadeicha, Nardichia, Nadíisha-déna, Na'dí'į́shą́ʼ, Nądí'įįshąą, and Naisha. They were close allies of the Natagés. Other linguists, particularly Michael Krauss (1973), have noted that a classification based only on the initial consonants of noun and verb stems is arbitrary and when other sound correspondences are considered the relationships between the languages appear to be more complex. Spanish language assistance is available for voters. "The loss of Athapaskan words for fish in the Southwest". [12] By 1910, the Office of Indian Affairs was trying to relocate its residents to open up the area for development and enable other interests to use its water rights. Archaeologists are finding ample evidence of an early proto-Apache presence in the Southwestern mountain zone in the 15th century and perhaps earlier. In general, the recently arrived Spanish colonists, who settled in villages, and Apache bands developed a pattern of interaction over a few centuries. The final housing is the hogan, an earthen structure in the desert area that was good for cool keeping in the hot weather of northern Mexico. An example of taboo differences: the black bear was a part of the Lipan diet (although not as common as buffalo, deer, or antelope), but the Jicarilla never ate bear because it was considered an evil animal. Dudley, U.S. Army troops made the people, young and old, walk through winter-flooded rivers, mountain passes and narrow canyon trails to get to the Indian Agency at San Carlos, 180 miles (290 km) away. Sandpainting is an important ceremony in the Navajo, Western Apache, and Jicarilla traditions, in which healers create temporary, sacred art from colored sands. The Navajo system is more divergent among the four, having similarities with the Chiricahua-type system. All people in the Apache tribe lived in one of three types of houses. In the example below, if low-marked Navajo and Chiricahua have a low tone, then the high-marked Northern Athabascan languages, Slavey and Chilcotin, have a high tone, and if Navajo and Chiricahua have a high tone, then Slavey and Chilcotin have a low tone. When we settled down, we used the wickiup; when we were moving around a great deal, we used this other kind ...[30], Recent research has documented the archaeological remains of Chiricahua Apache wickiups as found on protohistoric and at historical sites, such as Canon de los Embudos where C.S. The term Apachean includes the related Navajo people. "The position of the Apachean languages in the Athapaskan stock", in K. H. Basso & M. E. Opler (Eds.). Opler, Morris E. (1936a). The Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation is located within Maricopa County, Arizona, approximately 20 miles from Phoenix. In 1875, the Tonto and Yavapai were forcibly moved to the San Carlos Apache Reservation. The Dilzhę́’é Apache (Tonto Apache) lived usually east of the Verde River (Tu Cho n'lin – “big water running”, or Tu'cho nLi'i'i – “big water flowing”),[3] and most of the Yavapai bands west of it. There are two terms for each parent. Other hunted animals were badgers, bears, beavers, fowls, geese, opossums, otters, rabbits and turtles. Both raided and traded with each other. . There is a single word for grandchild (regardless of sex): -tsóyí̱í̱. He speaks fluent English, but when he is using the Comanche language the novel renders his speech into English as Tonto Talk. In late fall, juniper berries and pinyon nuts were gathered. However, formerly 'they had no permanent homes, so they didn't bother with cleaning.' 26 likes. Numerous other fruits, vegetables, and tuberous roots were also used. Most of them spoke both languages, and the headman of each band usually had two names, one from each tradition. Most United States' histories of this era report that the final defeat of an Apache band took place when 5,000 US troops forced Geronimo's group of 30 to 50 men, women and children to surrender on September 4, 1886, at Skeleton Canyon, Arizona. "The Apachean culture pattern and its origins", in A. Ortiz (Ed.). Certain animals - owls, snakes, bears, and coyotes - are considered spiritually evil and prone to cause sickness to humans. The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache. Additionally, there are two terms for a parent's opposite-sex sibling depending on sex: -daʼá̱á̱ "maternal uncle (mother's brother)", -béjéé "paternal aunt (father's sister). Two different words are used for each parent according to sex: -mááʼ "mother", -taa "father". Several gotah (extended families) formed local groups. A competing theory[who?] The Tonto Apache lived alongside the Wipukepa (“People from the Foot of the Red Rock”) and Kewevkapaya, two of the four subgroups of the Yavapai of central and western Arizona. Tonto, White Mountain, and San Carlos Apache are spoken in Arizona. This means if one is a male, then one's brother is called -kʼis and one's sister is called -´-ląh. Other plants include: acorns, agarita berries, amole stalks (roasted and peeled), aspen inner bark (used as a sweetener), bear grass stalks (roasted and peeled), box elder inner bark (used as a sweetener), banana yucca fruit, banana yucca flowers, box elder sap (used as a sweetener), cactus fruits (of various varieties), cattail rootstocks, chokecherries, currants, dropseed grass seeds (used for flatbread), elderberries, gooseberries (Ribes leptanthum and R. pinetorum), grapes, hackberries, hawthorne fruit, and hops (used as condiment). An archaeological material culture assemblage identified in this mountainous zone as ancestral Apache has been referred to as the "Cerro Rojo complex". In July and August, mesquite beans, Spanish bayonet fruit, and Emory oak acorns were gathered. Lipan women could help in hunting rabbits and Chiricahua boys were also allowed to hunt rabbits). Tonto Apache Nation is a Full Gospel Church As tensions between the Apache and settlers increased, the Mexican government passed laws offering cash rewards for Apache scalps. Thus, some stems that originally started with *k̯ in Proto-Athabascan start with ch in Plains Apache while the other languages start with ts. Found 0 sentences matching phrase "Tonto".Found in 0 ms. The Western Apache language is a Southern Athabaskan language spoken among the 14,000 Western Apaches living primarily in east central Arizona. However, in certain activities, such as the gathering of heavy agave crowns, men helped, although the men's job is usually to hunt animals such as deer, buffalo, and small game. The majority of the Tonto Apache, however, had decided to return together with their Yavapai allies and relatives to the Camp Verde Reservation to form the Yavapai-Apache Nation of today. They may be used for human purposes through ritual ceremonies. [citation needed], There are several hypotheses concerning Apache migrations. (1940). Over 100,000 English translations of Italian words and phrases. Both groups were hunter-gatherers, but were so similar here that scholars are seldom able to distinguish between their campsites.[5]. In clothing, Yavapai moccasins were rounded, whereas the Apaches had pointed toes. Some 20,000 Western Apache still speak their native language, and efforts have been made to preserve it. Chiricahuas in a -´-ląh relationship observed great restraint and respect toward that relative; cousins (but not siblings) in a -´-ląh relationship may practice total avoidance. Early American settlers often referred to all natives in the region as Tonto Apaches or Mohave Apaches. These houses are 'warm and comfortable, even though there is a big snow.' In Lipan culture, since deer were protected by Mountain Spirits, great care was taken in Mountain Spirit rituals in order to ensure smooth deer hunting. Particular types of foods eaten by a group depending upon their respective environment. Western Apache Language (Western Apaches) "Western Apache" is one of the two major Apache languages. These natives are called Querechos. Schroeder, Albert H. (1974c). The term Tonto is encountered the more frequently in anthropology literature, especially older works, than Dilzhe’e. The Tonto Apache are the direct descendants of the Dilzhe'e Apache who lived in the Payson vicinity long before the arrival of Europeans. Likewise the Kwevkepaya shared hunting and gathering grounds east of the Verde River, along Fossil Creek, East Verde River, Salt River and in the Superstition Mountains, Sierra Ancha and Pinaleno Mountains with Southern Tonto Apache and bands of the San Carlos Apache. Regarding tonal development, all Apache languages are low-marked languages, which means that stems with a "constricted" syllable rime in the proto-language developed low tone while all other rimes developed high tone. Plants utilized by the Plains Apache include: chokecherries, blackberries, grapes, prairie turnips, wild onions, and wild plums. Lipan is reported extinct. [9] A less likely origin may be from Spanish mapache, meaning "raccoon". Additionally, a grandparent's siblings are identified by the same word; thus, one's maternal grandmother, one's maternal grandmother's sisters, and one's maternal grandmother's brothers are all called -chú. The reservation is located adjacent to the town of Payson, in northwestern Gila County, approximately 95 miles northeast of Phoenix and 100 miles southeast of Flagstaff. [38], Apache religious stories relate to two culture heroes (one of the Sun/fire:"Killer-Of-Enemies/Monster Slayer", and one of Water/Moon/thunder: "Child-Of-The-Water/Born For Water") that destroy a number of creatures which are harmful to humankind. The Navajo, Western Apache, Jicarilla, and Lipan have an emergence or Creation Story, while this is lacking in the Chiricahua and Mescalero.[39]. Both crowns of both plants were baked and dried. ", Lipan (also Ypandis, Ypandes, Ipandes, Ipandi, Lipanes, Lipanos, Lipaines, Lapane, Lipanis, etc.) For the web server software, see, Conflict with Mexico and the United States, Undomesticated plants and other food sources, Opler lists three Chiricahua bands, while Schroeder lists five. Goodwin's formulation: "all those Apache peoples who have lived within the present boundaries of the state of Arizona during historic times with the exception of the Chiricahua, Warm Springs, and allied Apache, and a small band of Apaches known as the Apache Mansos, who lived in the vicinity of Tucson. The Camp Photo courtesy Roger Buchanan The Camp. While these subgroups spoke the same language and had kinship ties, Western Apaches considered themselves as separate from each other, according to Goodwin. The list below is based on Foster and McCollough (2001), Opler (1983b, 1983c, 2001), and de Reuse (1983). [2] All Apache languages are endangered. Reservations were often badly managed, and bands that had no kinship relationships were forced to live together. These beaded designs historically resembled that of the Great Basin Paiute and is characterized by linear patterning. The 40 square miles (100 km2) reservation was authorized by President Theodore Roosevelt from the former Fort McDowell in 1903. The Tonto Apache Tribe is awarding the Hellsgate Fire District a $25,449 grant for its Critical Hose Replacement Project. Other plants utilized by the Chiricahua include: agarita (or algerita) berries, alligator juniper berries, anglepod seeds, banana yucca (or datil, broadleaf yucca) fruit, chili peppers, chokecherries, cota (used for tea), currants, dropseed grass seeds, Gambel oak acorns, Gambel oak bark (used for tea), grass seeds (of various varieties), greens (of various varieties), hawthorne fruit, Lamb's-quarters leaves, lip ferns (used for tea), live oak acorns, locust blossoms, locust pods, maize kernels (used for tiswin), and mesquite beans. Showing page 1. Over 100,000 English translations of Spanish words and phrases. "[31], Apache people obtained food from four main sources:[33]. Western Apache includes the WMA, Cibecue, San Carlos, Northern and Southern Tonto, and Yavapai-Apache language varieties (Adley-SantaMaria, 1997). They were also called Plains Lipan (Golgahį́į́, Kó'l kukä'ⁿ, "Prairie Men"), not to be confused with Lipiyánes or Le Panis (French for the Pawnee). A parent's siblings are classified together regardless of sex: -ghúyé "maternal aunt or uncle (mother's brother or sister)", -deedééʼ "paternal aunt or uncle (father's brother or sister)". The two distinctly different languages intermixed and overlapped. Tonto Apache Nation. Other animals hunted include: bighorn sheep, buffalo (for those living closer to the plains), cottontail rabbits, elk, horses, mules, opossums, pronghorn, wild steers and wood rats. Thus, the extended family is connected through a lineage of women who live together (that is, matrilocal residence), into which men may enter upon marriage (leaving behind his parents' family). The tepee type was just made of brush. (1938). Indeed, there can be little doubt that the Apache has been transformed from a native American into an American legend, the fanciful and fallacious creation of a non-Indian citizenry whose inability to recognize the massive treachery of ethnic and cultural stereotypes has been matched only by its willingness to sustain and inflate them. If one is a female, then one's brother is called -´-ląh and one's sister is called -kʼis. The Apache presence on both the Plains and in the mountainous Southwest indicate that the people took multiple early migration routes. There are also three sibling terms based on the age relative to the speaker: -ndádéé "older sister", -´-naʼá̱á̱ "older brother", -shdá̱zha "younger sibling (i.e. Skunks were eaten only in emergencies. The Tonto Apache competed more with the Navajo (in Apache Yúdahá – 'Live Far Up' – 'Those who live up north') and the Enemy Navajo (Nda Yutahá – 'Navajo White Man' or 'Navajo who live like white men'), and the peoples engaged more in open conflict. Records of the period seem to indicate that relationships depended upon the specific villages and specific bands that were involved with each other. "Southern Athapaskan archeology", in A. Ortiz (Ed.). The one Chiricahua band (of Opler's) and the Mescalero practiced very little cultivation. While anthropologists agree on some traditional major subgrouping of Apaches, they have often used different criteria to name finer divisions, and these do not always match modern Apache groupings. Many Western Apache reject such a classification. The Dilzhe’e Apache refer to themselves (autonym) as Dilzhę́’é, as do the San Carlos Apache. Over the centuries, many Spanish, French and English-speaking authors did not differentiate between Apache and other semi-nomadic non-Apache peoples who might pass through the same area. [7], By the early 1900s, the Yavapai were drifting away from the San Carlos Reservation. Warfare between the Apache peoples and Euro-Americans has led to a stereotypical focus on certain aspects of Apache cultures. Thus, the same word will refer to either a sibling or a cousin (there are not separate terms for parallel-cousin and cross-cousin). To some historians, this implies the Apaches moved into their current Southwestern homelands in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. and collected (agave, berries, wild plants, seeds). To further confusion, the Europeans referred to the Tolkepaya, the southwestern group of Yavapai, and the Hualapai (who belonged to the Upland Yuma Peoples) as Yuma Apache or Mohave Apache. posits their migration south, through the Rocky Mountains, ultimately reaching the American Southwest by the 14th century or perhaps earlier. [note 1], Another theory suggests the term comes from Yavapai ʔpačə meaning "enemy". The Tonto Apache (Dilzhę́’é, also Dilzhe'e, Dilzhe’eh Apache) is one of the groups of Western Apache people. "Navajo and Apache relationships west of the Rio Grande", Schroeder, Albert H. (1974a). Seymour, Deni J. The Chiricahua living to the south called them Ben-et-dine or binii?e'dine' (“brainless people”, “people without minds”, i.e. The most elaborate system was among the Chiricahua, where men had to use indirect polite speech toward and were not allowed to be within visual sight of the wife's female relatives, whom he had to avoid. The Apache found they could use European and American goods. (2009b) "Evaluating Eyewitness Accounts of Native Peoples along the Coronado Trail from the International Border to Cibola". He includes Chicame (the earlier term for Hispanized Chicano or New Mexicans of Spanish/Hispanic and Apache descent) among them as having definite Apache connections or names which the Spanish associated with the Apache.