Like Odin, Wodan was the god of hanging. The Aesir-Vanir War, also called The First Great War or The Long War, was a war fought between the Aesir and Vanir Gods many years before the events of the God of War Series. As was customary among the ancient Norse peoples, the two sides agreed to pay tribute to each other by sending hostages to live among the other tribe. Whatever other meanings this tale may have had for the Vikings, one seems to be that it set a divine precedent for Norse social relations. But Freya spat at the thought. https://godofwar.fandom.com/wiki/Aesir-Vanir_War?oldid=116156. Aesir, in Scandinavian mythology, either of two main groups of deities, four of whom were common to the Germanic nations: Odin (q.v. While the Aesir were the great gods and lived in Asgard, the Vanir were minor gods and resided in Vanaheim. 2018's God of War was quite conservative with its godly characters compared to previous entires, featuring only a handful of Aesir and Vanir. At the end of the Aesir-Vanir War, Mimir is exchanged as a hostage and taken by the Aesir. The Aesir were quite taken by her magical powers and zealously sought her services. Rather than renewing their hostilities over this tragic misunderstanding, each of the Aesir and Vanir came together and spat into a cauldron. Division of the Gods-Vanir nature gods, Aesir are more war-like. Because of this, the Aesir and Vanir came to hate and fear one another, and these hostilities erupted into war. Weird...!”, Mimir: “Once Fjörgyn was gone, lonely ages passed for Odin... and as war with the Vanir raged, I can see what he really wanted beneath his bluster. The war is an important event in Norse mythology, and the implications for the potential historicity surrounding accounts of the war are a matter of scholarly debate and discourse. [3] Snorri Sturluson. According to legend, the two groups went to war with one another. Odin’s conquest had failed, and the warring factions of Gods found themselves stuck in a stalemate once again.”, Mimir: “With Asgard and Vanaheim both ravaged, the two sides could only now consider what was once unthinkable: compromise. It took some convincing, but ultimately Odin was persuaded to marry his deadliest enemy – a certain Vanir Goddess, legendary not only for her fertile beauty but her genius at the very Vanir magic that Odin had long aspired to master.”, Atreus: “Freya married Odin? History Known Vanir. God of War Wiki is a FANDOM Games Community. In Heimskringla: eða Sögur Noregs Konunga. ( Public domain ) Described in the Prose and Poetic Eddas , the nature of the Aesir and Vanir’s relationship pre-war is vague.Most sources agree that there was a period called the Golden Age where both clans interacted with one each other peacefully, engaging in games and sports among themselves. Freya. The Vanir immediately saw that Hoenir was seemingly able to deliver incomparably wise advice on any problem, but they failed to notice that this was only when he had Mimir in his company. The Aesir were connected to the celestial plane and were gods of war, courage, and natural elements. But soon they realized that their values of honor, kin loyalty, and obedience to the law were being pushed aside by the selfish desires they sought to fulfill with the witch’s magic. The Aesir received Njörd (Njord) and Freyr, while the Vanir received Mimir and Hoenir. But soon they realized that their values of honor, kin loyalty, and obedience to the law were being pushed aside by the selfish desires they sought to fulfill with the witch’s magic. What was in it for her?”, Mimir: “It was a sacrifice to protect her people – a selfless act of love. Struck by Freya’s beauty, Odin readily agreed. The Saga of “the first war” follows the event of the Aesir-Vanir war of the Norse Saga. The Aesir and the Vanir had been at war for a long time when they decided to make peace. Now war would surely return. Among their ranks are Freya, Freyr, Njord, and arguably the early Germanic goddess Nerthus as well. The Aesir fought by the rules of plain combat, with weapons and brute force, while the Vanir used the subtler means of magic. Three times they tried to burn her, and three times she was reborn from the ashes. 1964. As was customary among the ancient Norse and other Germanic peoples, the two sides agreed to pay tribute to each other by sending hostages to live among the other tribe. War Between The Aesir And The Vanir Gods In Norse Mythology. Odin’s wrath was fierce, and his curses upon her were more than she‘d dared to fear.”, Atreus: “But her magic was so much stronger than his...”, Mimir: “After so much time together, he knew her vulnerabilities, and exploited them to craft curses she could never break.”, Atreus: “Oh... like not being able to leave Midgard.”, Mimir: “Worst still, he robbed her of her warrior spirit. During the peace between to warring tribes of gods, Aesir and Vanir, the two sides exchanged hostages. For a while there, he really turned on the charm. They beheaded Mimir and sent the severed head back to Asgard, where the distraught Odin chanted magic poems over the head and embalmed it in herbs. Throughout most of the Norse tales, deities from the two tribes get along fairly easily, and it’s hard to pin down firm distinctions between the two groups. Under the name Heiðr (“Bright”), she eventually came to Asgard, the home of the Aesir. Declaring war instead, the Aesir suffered numerous defeats before granting equality. His family was incredulous with anger at what had happened. It was also a war in which neither side was ever truly able to gain the upper hand over the other. He claimed the Giants were behind Ragnarök, insisting that if he could destroy the Jötnar, he could stop the apocalypse. The Aesir fought by the rules of plain combat, with weapons and brute force, while the Vanir used the subtler means of magic. It not only banished her from Asgard, but also forbade her from raising her hand in combat, even in self-defence. To ensure this peace they traded hostages: the Vanir sent their most renowned gods, the wealthy Njord and his children Freya and Freyr. So he assembled the largest army ever seen and marched it toward Vanaheim. The taste of Vanir magic led him to new forms of experimentation, and new levels of depravity.”, Atreus: “Okay, obviously the marriage to Odin didn’t last. Mimir’s Tale: Aesir-Vanir War/Freya’s Marriage to Odin. Through teamwork, they were able to defeat and kill her. At this point, she was also appointed as Queen of the Valkyries. Odin then proceeded to expel Freya from Asgard, leaving her permanently trapped in Midgard. As a result, Freya was banished from Vanaheim, forbidden to return. Now her only hope was that, in time, some brave soul would finish what she could not: restoring balance, and peace to the realms.”, Atreus: “Mimir, you never did tell me why Freya spit in your face.”, Mimir: “Well, she blames me in large measure for her present circumstances... and not totally without reason. [4] Turville-Petre, E.O.G. Both sides suffered tremendous losses... and for many of us, quite frankly, war was simply no fun anymore, but a rather senseless waste of precious life. The Aesir were quite taken by her powers and zealously sought her services. Fear and deference cloaked the landscape as the Aesir soldiers stomped across it, for the King of Gods had never lost a battle, and he surely never would. Despite this uneasy truce, many felt that it would only be a matter of time before the simmering tensions would eventually break out again and the war would restart. The Aesir were taken by Freyr’s charm, and ecstatic with the new powers he bestowed upon them. For Odin had come up with a particularly creative, and cruel, spell. She stumbled, and then it all went black. Asgard. The War of the Gods. The two tribes were still weary of fighting a war that was so evenly-matched, however. However, Odin eventually grew paranoid of the Jötnar and their prophetic knowledge of Ragnarök. [1] The Poetic Edda. The famed Old Norse scholar E.O.G. Under the name Heiðr (“Bright”), the Vanir Goddess Freya came to Asgard, the home of the Aesir. In Norse myth, the Vanir are the second tribe of Norse gods, the first (and much better known) being the Aesir. He set about to broker a peace between the Gods. Vanir, in Norse mythology, race of gods responsible for wealth, fertility, and commerce and subordinate to the warlike Aesir. All rights reserved. Yet the peace this union provided carried much further, rippling from Asgard, to Jötunheim, Muspelheim, and every place in-between.”, Mimir: “Married life for Freya was tolerable, at first. Following the end of the conflict, Odin married the Vanir God… They include Frey and his sister Freya, the most prominent of the Vanir deities, who along with their father Njörðr initially joined the Æsir as hostages after the war between the two peoples. She stuck it out through all manner of indignity, all in the name of maintaining peace, and safety for her people. With Mimir, a particularly brilliant negotiator, was selected as the sole arbiter between the two sides. Eventually the two tribes of divinities became weary of fighting and decided to call a truce. The realm gates to both Vanaheim and Asgard remain locked for anyone that isn't a Vanir or an Aesir, respectively. Blaming Freya for their own shortcomings, the Aesir called her “Gullveig” (“Gold-greed”) and attempted to murder her. Three times they tried to burn her, and three times she was reborn from the ashes. But Odin’s madness, his tyranny, his corruption of her magics – it became more than she could stomach, and at long last she broke it off. Enraged, the Vanir swore revenge against Asgard. Freya was better to him that he deserved. But Odin’s true face showed itself again in the end. Odin, the proudest of the Aesir, sought an end to the back and forth. Aesir. Although she missed her home, Freya was happy in Asgard. God of War (2018) The Vanir always had simmering tensions with their rival tribe, the Aesir. p. 158-159. Thus preserved, Mimir’s head continued to give indispensable advice to Odin in times of need. None could match the pure brute force of the Aesir attacks, but the merciless soldiers had never encountered so many Vanir Gods casting Seiðr magic at once. This attack upon the goddess, resulted in a war between the Aesir and the Vanir. In the end though, Freya agreed to the union, believing it would establish peace between the realms. Freya; Freyr; Njörd; Origins in Norse Mythology. This storyline continues in the tale of the Mead of Poetry. But he wouldn’t make the mistake of simply gathering his armies this time. Instead, the King of the Aesir blindsided her with a Seiðr magic, it always seemed he was only humoring her. Thus preserved, Mimir’s head continued to give indispensable advice to Odin in times of need. Odin was consumed with the idea that Ragnarök, the battle said to end all things, was imminent. The second species of Gods and Goddesses are the Gods and Goddesses of the Vanir. After Odin was banished from Jötunheim for trying to steal their knowledge, Odin ordered Thor to use Mjölnir to slaughter all the Giants across the realms. In the myths, as in the game, the gods of Asgard, the Aesir, were once at war with the Vanir, the gods of Vanaheim. Enough was enough – and at last, Odin’s most brilliant advisor became determined to find a more enlightened path. Hoenir was actually a rather slow-witted simpleton who was at a loss for words when Mimir wasn’t available to counsel him. They include Odin, Frigg, Hother, Thor, Baldr and Týr. The Aesir Gods were once at war with the Gods of Vanaheim, but the two realms are now at peace. With colossal damage done on both sides, the Aesir eventually retreated. The Vanir goddess Freya was always the foremost practitioner of the art of seidr, the most terribly powerful kind of magic. However, the lead-up to Ragnarok means that many more new Aesir and Vanir gods will likely show up throughout the next game. The war went on for some time, with both sides gaining the upper hand by turns. But how did Freya end up a hermit in the woods?”, Mimir: “Oh, that was a singular piece of cruelty, even for Odin. Though Odin readily agreed to the marriage, Freya still harbored resentment against him due to the torture he inflicted on Freyr. ), god of war; and Thor (q.v. Thor accepted the task with glee, but Freya could no longer hold her tongue in the face of this genocide. They explain how gods and men, who have such different interests and ambitions, as the agriculturalist, the merchant, the warrior, and the king, can live together in harmony.”[5]. I guess if I was her, I’d spit in your face too.”. For instance, Odin hates the Giants, and they him, but Thor’s own mother was the Giantess Fjörgyn – one of Odin’s great loves.”, Atreus: “So Thor is half-God and half-Giant? The Aesir-Vanir conflict As you journey through Midgard as Kratos, you'll start to notice references to the Aesir-Vanir war. Another group, called the Vanir, lived in the world of Vanaheim. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. The Vanir were able to breach the massive wall that protected Asgard, but the Aesir were able to drive them back. Njord and his children seem to have lived more or less in peace in Asgard. The Aesir were quite taken by her powers and zealously sought her services. The wisest gods of the Aesir. In Norse mythology, the Æsir-Vanir War was a conflict between two groups of deities that ultimately resulted in the unification of the Æsir and the Vanir into a single pantheon. With seemingly no end to the conflict in sight, Odin's advisor Mimir was appointed to be the arbiter between the warring Gods. ), chief of the Aesir; Frigg (q.v. In Norse mythology, gods and goddesses usually belong to one of two tribes: the Aesir and the Vanir. But now, instead of casting magic, she was suffering it’s twisted effects. Though she barely managed a smile through the entire ceremony, the Aesir-Vanir wedding was cause for enormous celebration. Because of this, the Aesir and Vanir came to hate and fear one another, and these hostilities erupted into war. The First conflict After the first contact with the Aesirs failed thanks to Loki, both tribes were now at war. Like historical seidr practitioners, she wandered from town to town plying her craft for hire. Freya, Freyr, and Njord of the Vanir went to the Aesir, and Hoenir and Mimir went to the Vanir. The Vanir are one of two groups of gods (the other being the Æsir) and are the namesake of the location Vanaheimr (Old Norse "Home of the Vanir"). However, upon being caught by Odin, she was stripped of her Valkyrie wings and her fighting spirit, leaving her unable to raise a hand against anyone, even in self-defense. Vanir and Aesir. She attempted to plead with him, to just her her leave, and to leave her people alone. Mimir: “Now, heed a tale long ago... how it all started, that first Great War. She felt warm, and tired as her vision blurred. Norse mythology divides gods into Aesir and Vanir. Division of the Gods-Vanir nature gods, Aesir are more war … Both sides suffered tremendous losses... and for many of us, quiet frankly, war was simply no fun anymore, but a rather senseless waste of precious life. The Vanir immediately saw that Hoenir was seemingly able to deliver incomparably wise advice on any problem, but they failed to notice that this was only when he had Mimir in his company. But any sympathy Odin might have once had, like his sanity, lost long ago. Looking for more great information on Norse mythology and religion? Furious at the unpredictable magic, they tortured and even attempted to kill him. Freya cannot fight – even to defend herself. After years of simmering hostilities between the Aesir and Vanir Gods over the murder of Ymir, the Vanir God Freyr attempted to broker diplomacy between the two factions. Goddess of marriage-comforter goddess. Though the Aesir initially dominated the battle through brute force and Odin's leadership, they were eventually repelled by the Vanir's magic. Unfortunately, the same couldn't be said of Hoenir and Mimir in Vanaheim. He seemed interested in making her happy. As reparation for the torture of their goddess Gullveig, the Vanir demanded from the Aesir monetary satisfaction or equal status. Instead, the hot-headed Aesir cast their blame on Freyr. Once it was finished, Odin bestowed the mighty hammer Mjölnir to his son Thor, and sent him to slay every Giant he could find. Eventually the two tribes of divinities became weary of fighting and decided to call a truce. The Vanir goddess Nerthus is slain in battle by the sons of Thor Magni and Modi. The war went on for some time, with both sides gaining the upper hand by turns. In the realm of Asgard, resides the Gods and Goddesses of the Aesir. Ynglinga Saga 4. Under the name Heiðr (“Bright”), she eventually came to Asgard, the home of the Aesir. One of Norse mythology’s most pivotal events was the war between these two groups of gods. He granted her so many wishes I could scarcely recalled them all. These Gods and Goddesses are known for their love of Galdr science, war, love, skald craft, knowledge and wisdom among many other things. Subsequently, members of the Vanir are sometimes also referred to as members of the Æsir. ), Odin’s wife; Tyr (q.v. Myth and Religion of the North: The Religion of Ancient Scandinavia. Like historical seidr practitioners, she wandered from town to town plying her craft for hire. The Vanir are usually interpreted as gods of fertility and prosperity, while the Aesir were more war-like and focused on strength. The Æsir / ˈaɪsɪər / are the gods of the principal pantheon in Norse religion. © Daniel McCoy 2012-2019. Some of the other important The raucous party continued well into the night, with the sounds of celebration carrying throughout the kingdom. So Freyr, the Vanir’s most revered leaders, attempted an act of diplomacy, traveling across the realms to teach the Aesir Gods the way of the harvest with accompanying spell-craft fit to feed all of Asgard. He escaped, and fled back home to Vanaheim. I’ve also written a popular list of The 10 Best Norse Mythology Books, which you’ll probably find helpful in your pursuit. They did not always live in harmony. In exchange the Aesir sent Honir, a big, handsome man who they claimed was suited to rule. She was taken … The Vanir goddess Freya was always the foremost practitioner of the art of seidr, the most terribly powerful kind of magic. Oh he won Freya’s trust, and she taught him some of her Vanir magic – another choice she would live to bitterly regret. Prior to that, wars to the Aesir were easily won – but the Vanir had proved their equal, and exacted devastating damage. The Aesir lived in Asgard and the Vanir, who existed long before the first Aesir gods appeared, lived in Vanaheim. This would account for later Norse myths, when Odin stabbed with his spear and burned the Vanir goddess Gullveig three times, but each time, the goddess would be reborn. Æsir-Vanir war. Skáldskaparmál 1. The difference appears to be determined by a common Indo-european division between celestial and cthonic deities, as shown long ago by the great mythologist Georges Dumezil. Truly, she deserves better than she got. The Vanir, on the other hand, appear to be primarily chthonic beings associated with concepts like fertility, wisdom, cultivation, magic, and prophecy. She fought back, vowing to leave her husband and return to Vanaheim – even if it meant the chaos of war would overtake the realms again.”, Mimir: “Freya had nearly escaped out of Asgard’s high gates when Odin saw her. [2] Snorri Sturluson. The War Between the Aesir and Vanir. As for Freya: well, with the promise of peace resting behind his curled smile, Odin didn’t seem too terrible. As a result, Freyr was tortured and nearly killed at the Aesir's hands before escaping back to Vanaheim. The Vanir Gods and Goddesses The Vanir (Old Norse Vanir, pronounced “VAN-ir”) are one of the two principal tribes of deities featured in Norse mythology. Wouldn’t you agree, brother?”, Mimir: “Precisely. Sadly, despite his best counselor’s best efforts to persuade him that peace was the only path to stave off Ragnarök, Odin never let of his obsession with Jötunheim. While the Vanir remain mostly unexplored, they appear to be more benevolent that the Aesir, showing the ability to peacefully interact with other races. Horrified by Odin's cruelty, Freya attempted to flee Asgard. But such astonishing spells always have a downside, and the Aesir weren’t about to blame themselves when things went wrong. As if the marriage wasn’t punishment enough! Mimir eventually settled on a peaceful solution in which Odin would marry the Vanir Goddess Freya, uniting the two factions as one. During one battle, the Aesir gods Magni and Modi encountered the Vanir goddess Nerthus. From their saliva they created Kvasir, the wisest of all beings, as a way of pledging sustained harmony. (The other tribe is the Aesir.) With both Asgard and Vanaheim ravaged by the war, the factions found themselves locked in a stalemate. But of course there’s more to that story.”, Atreus: “I can’t believe Odin and Freya were ever married.“, Mimir: “Love and hate are closely intertwined than you might imagine. Freya is a Vanir goddess of sex, fertility, war, and wealth, daughter of Njord. She taught her husband Seiðr spells, and though the High Goddess of Vanir missed her home, she was bestowed with new purpose here. Besides the Giants, the Aesir had simmering tensions between their rival tribe, the pacifist Vanir. The war fought between the Æsir and the Vanir, which was, according to Völuspá, the first war in the world.The cause appears to have been the arrival of Gullveig among the Æsir, and who was pierced by lances in Odin 's hall and thrice burned and thrice reborn. Unfortunately, the same can’t be said of Hoenir and Mimir in Vanaheim. A. Sutherland - AncientPages.com - The Aesir were warlike gods who lived in total separation from the Vanir, the gods of fertility. While the Aesir gods were strong and cunning warriors, the Vanir … And with the Aesir in possession of the masterwork hammer, the end of her marriage might indeed mean the end of her people. Home of the Aesir Gods, defended by Thor, home of Odin. Still, she couldn’t let the chance for peace among the realms pass by. Turville-Petre offers the following summary of the meaning of the tale, which he places side by side with similar tales from other branches of the Indo-European family: “[T]he Norse, Irish, Roman, and Indian tales seem to serve the same purpose. The Prose Edda. And after no small amount of convincing, Freya agreed. For centuries, tensions have been simmering between two factions of Gods: the hedonistic Aesir and the Vanir, known for their connection to nature and magic. While this site provides the ultimate online introduction to the topic, my book The Viking Spirit provides the ultimate introduction to Norse mythology and religion period. But as Freya became more content, her husband only grew less. Blaming Freya for their own shortcomings, the Aesir called her “Gullveig” (“Gold-greed”) and attempted to murder her. It was when the Aesir attempted to murder one of their leaders, Freyr, after the Vanir attempted an act of diplomacy with them that war finally broke out between the two factions of gods. In Norse mythology, the Æsir–Vanir War was a conflict between two groups of deities that ultimately resulted in the unification of the Æsir and the Vanir into a single pantheon. But as the throngs of troops descended upon the lush pastures of the Vanir kingdom, the fearsome army was falling back two steps for every advance it made. Völuspá, stanzas 21-24. But there was a time when that wasn’t the case. However, once the crops began to die, the Aesir blamed Freyr, citing his magic as unpredictable. Freya stammered, trying to counter with a spell of her own. They beheaded Mimir and sent the severed head back to Asgard, where the distraught Odin chanted magic poems over the head and embalmed it in herbs. But he must have studied further. After a series of skirmishes between the two sides, Odin, the head of the Aesir, assembled a large army and marched towards Vanaheim. Gullveig, was also called Heiðr, was a practitioner of the magic arts, or seið. No living thing May she harm, by blade nor spell. The only known Vanir by name are Njord, Freyr, and Freya, who all were part of a truce between the Aesir and the Vanir after the war between them ended. When she awoke, Freya found herself far from Odin, but more distraught than ever. Who Were the Indo-Europeans and Why Do They Matter. Traveling to Asgard, Freyr taught the Aesir how to use magic to harvest their crops, producing food for the entire realm. They swore revenge against Asgard, and thus began the first and most barbarous war between the Gods.”, Mimir: “Skirmishes between the Aesir and Vanir continued for centuries. However, this act was met with disapproval from her fellow Vanir, who saw it as a betrayal. Woman-doctor of the Gods. Rather than renewing their hostilities over the misunderstanding, each of the Aesir and Vanir came together and spat into a cauldron. He seemed happy. After the Æsir–Vanir War, the Vanir became a subgroup of the Æsir. And he brokered an interesting solution: Freya, Freyr’s sister and the other leader of the Vanir, would marry Odin, King of the Aesir. The Aesir-Vanir War, also called The First Great War or The Long War, was a war fought between the Aesir and Vanir Gods many years before the events of the God of War Series. One of the Vanir leaders, the Vanir God Freyr, tried an act of diplomacy, teaching the Aesir the way of the harvest, but, these spells had such a downside, the Aesir weren't to blame themselves, when things we… Njord and his children seem to have lived more or less in peace in Asgard. Instead, Odin employed the greatest smiths in all the realms, the Dwarven brothers Brok and Sindri, to create a weapon of unimaginable destruction. In Norse mythology, the two pantheons wage war against each other, resulting in a unified pantheon. The peace held, and I truly believed all had worked out better that I could have planned. But the Vanir God wouldn’t be undone so easily. Odin had tried to destroy her home, her family, and everything she loved – and oh yes, attempted to murder her beloved brother. The two tribes were still weary of fighting a war that was so evenly-matched, however. The second Norse pantheon is the Vanir. Freya, Freyr, and Njord of the Vanir went to the Aesir, and Hoenir (pronounced roughly “HIGH-neer”) and Mimir went to the Vanir. This subreddit is dedicated to discussion of the games and sharing news about … The Old Norse Language and How to Learn It, The Swastika – Its Ancient Origins and Modern (Mis)use. From their saliva they created Kvasir, the wisest of all beings, as a way of pledging sustained harmony.[1][2][3][4]. God of War is a third person action-adventure video game developed by Santa Monica Studio and published by Sony Interactive Entertainment. The war between the two tribes of gods was a long and brutal one. After Hoenir responded to the Vanir’s entreaties with the unhelpful “Let others decide” one too many times, the Vanir thought they had been cheated in the hostage exchange. The collective name for the the principal race of Norse gods; they who lived in Asgard, and with the All-Father Odin, ruled the lives of mortal men, the other was the Vanir. She taught her husband magical Vanir spells, and even found a new sense of purpose with the birth of her son Baldur. God of War won Game of the Year 2018. The Aesir were not the only gods of the Norse people, however. ), whose name was the Teutonic word for thunder. Even if the circumstances are roughly the same, they remain a fictional work and have many variances from the original Saga. These gods mainly preside over Asgard and Midgard. After Hoenir responded to the Vanir’s entreaties with the unhelpful “Let others decide” one too many times, the Vanir thought they had been cheated in the hostage exchange. It all goes back to the Long War between the Aesir and Vanir. As Odin took in his beautiful new wife, draped in the finest fabric and Vanir jewels, his kingdom felt nearly complete.
Closest Black Hole To Earth 2020 Name, Belgium Weather Rmi, Introduce Yourself In 5 Sentences, Peppers Menu Shalimar, Hotel General Manager Job Description, Red Rooster Newtown Menu, How To Tell If A Pigeon Is Pregnant,